Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,556 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Antonella

    Dear Andrea,

    the Earth keeps quaking in the area where your family lives, but the media are not giving good reports about it, the Nation is not called to follow the events and/or give some help as it was for L’Aquila earthquake, so people do not exactly know about the situation.

    I hope that your wife and your relatives are feeling strong and have overcome the shock of the first moments; when it happened to us, even without seriuos damages, we were scared.

    Be blessed and feel protected.

  • Bernie Koppenhofer

    I applaud everyone on this site who uses English when it is not their native language. It would be laughable if I had to use Italian, Swedish or any other language other than English. Thank you for your effort.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea, Giovanni

    The two cats in my treadmill/tapis roulant video are in an ‘ad hoc’ configuration with the disadvantages of both series and parallel designs. They operate at low output temperature (about 38 C) with low output power and instability. It needs a CAT-A-LYST.

    Joseph

  • Greg Leonard

    Dear AR
    As an Englishman, I suffer the ‘English disease’ of not be able to speak in another language.
    I am very grateful that your, and the majority of other, posts are in English – thanks

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni Guerrini:
    Thanks for your endeavour to write in English. Of course we, who are not English mother language guys, are forgiven when make mistakes…
    Yes, we are syncronized, it appears.
    Warm Regards,
    A.

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    …sorry,I correct with a blue pencil..are our minds sincronized?

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Joseph ! Our minds are sincronized ?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joseph Fine:
    Right! But I am asking myself: are the 2 Cats connected in series or in parallel?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni Guerrini:
    He,he,he,he…and he enjoys it too!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco:
    First of all: your comment is exactly the 10 000th commenbt on this blog: good luck!
    Again, do not worry: I gave already evidence not to be rubber-balled.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco

    Dear ing. Rossi
    My concern is not so much for your desire, as that of others that, at the time, you are helping. However, I will make note of what she writes and “crossing my fingers'”.
    Warm greetings
    F.T.

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Caro dott Rossi,come vede il mio reattore è ancora un pò instabile,ma ci sto lavorando !

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=arR-LXg7EN8

  • Antonella

    Caro Francesco,

    >solo alcune invenzioni sono nate per necessità strettamente militari

    E’ così, e per questo ho usato il participio del verbo “sviluppare”, evitando il termine “nate”.

    >…i militari…tendono a mantenere i segreti dei ritrovati nella loro migliore evoluzione…

    Il dottor Rossi ha più volte ribadito che il prossimo impianto, quello acquistato da privati, sarà all’altezza di quello sviluppato con l’aiuto degli ingegneri militari. Penso che abbia preso accordi in quella direzione. E’ certo possibile che in seguito la tecnologia dei due settori, civile e militare, prenda strade diverse, come è accaduto per gli aerei o per gli impianti di allarme.

    >per il civile ci accontenteremmo solo di “scaldare acqua” chissà per quanti anni ancora.

    Mi sembri molto pessimista sulle capacità degli ingegneri civili! dov’è scritto che siano meno abili dei militari? quando chiunque avrà la possibilità di guardare “nella pancia del gatto”, non pensi che ognuno potrà applicare la propria capacità e la propria fantasia per ottenere i più diversi risultati?

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea, Giovanni,

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVjzd320gew

    Cats on a Treadmill (Tapis Roulant) Video.

    However, the Power level will not be constant.

    Joseph

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni Guerrini:
    Thank you for your attention; not bad the applicative idea to the proposal of Joseph Fine, though.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco,
    Do not worry, the work that we are doing with our Customer will catalyze, not limit, the civil applications.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco

    Cara Antonella
    Tu dicci di non essere preoccupata e forse hai una quota di ragione. Ma ti faccio presente che solo alcune invenzioni sono nate per necessità strettamente militari (vedasi bomba H, ma che bella trovata!)anche se le altre invenzioni sono state poi largamente rifinanziate per questi scopi.
    Però ti ricordo che i militari senza eccezzioni di nazionalità, con puntuale regolarità e senza tema di smentite, tendono a mantenere i segreti dei ritrovati nella loro migliore evoluzione per dare al civile solo un sotto prodotto. Ad esempio se A.Rossi trova il modo di produrre 600°C stabilmente con valori di rendimento molto superiori al dichiarato (COP 6) gli sviluppi per l’avionica e la marina militare potrebbero essere poderosi, mentre per il civile ci accontenteremmo solo di “scaldare acqua” chissà per quanti anni ancora.
    Questo non sembra più lo spirito di volontà iniziale dell’opera di Rossi.
    Caro ing. Rossi, la mia potrebbe essere anche una visione troppo pessimistica (ma l’età, la conoscenza della storia e l’esperienza che ho mi suggeriscono estrema cautela)per cui auguro a me e a tutti i Suoi estimatori di sbagliarmi.
    Cordiali saluti
    F.T.

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Dear Mr Rossi,thank you for the good new !
    Mr Joseph Fine,this is a good idea,we could put one cat on a tapis roulant with generator,it would be a true green energy! 😉

    Regards G G

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Frank Acland:
    The very important target right now is to stabilize reliably the reactor that works at 600 Celsius.
    We are very close.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joseph Fine:
    Very nice!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Could you tell us what the very important target is? And how close you are?

    It all sounds very exciting!

    Best wishes,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni Guerrini:
    Here is a new: our 600 celsius plant is continuing to work very well and stable.
    We are close to a very important target.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    …sorry..;)I feel like a father in delivery room…

    regards G G

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni Guerrini:
    I never said where the plant has been installed. I only said where it has been manufactured.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Giovanni Guerrini:
    Do not worry. I repeat: do not worry! Antonella, by the way, is right.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    @ Antonella

    Non dimenticare che gli eserciti dipendono dai governi,quindi visto come si mettono le cose, ripeto pare che tiri aria nuova.(speriamo)

    Saluti G G

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Caro dott Rossi,come Francesco anche io sono un pò preoccupato,ma confido nel fatto che Lei oramai è abituato a “stare in campana”.Inoltre visto che i militari La hanno autorizzata a svelare il loro coinvolgimento direi che,almeno negli states,tira aria nuova.

    Cari saluti G G

  • Antonella

    Caro Francesco,

    scrivi “Sono molto, molto allarmato…”

    Io invece non sono per nulla preoccupata, anzi. Lo sviluppo di alcune grandi invenzioni umane, dalle strade alla internet passando per galeoni, aeroplani, telegrafo, orologi da tasca e macchine per cucire, è dovuto a necessità militari. Può non piacere, ma è lo spirito guerriero che ci ha portati fin qui e ci porterà oltre.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco:
    Not true. We will develope the non military applications and the work we are making with the Customer is extremely useful for all the other application.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Aka:
    No.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • aka

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    You mention 1500 degrees C as melting point for the core.
    But once nickel is converted to copper, the melting point of copper should be taken into account. Copper melts at 1084.62 °C. Isn’t this going to affect the maximum heat generation of the E-cat over time?

  • Francesco

    Caro ing. Rossi
    Quoto:
    @ A.R.
    “”Dear Pietro F.:
    1- Yes, they have
    2- Yes””

    1a Sono molto, molto allarmato…
    2a Sono ancora più allarmato e mi chiedo se Lei è ancora vivo…Lei è ancora vivo?

    Se le cose stanno veramente così temo dovremmo pazientare ancora molto tempo prima di vedere l’E-Cat (ad uso civile)nelle nostre case. Per giunta come sotto prodotto!
    Mi spiace ma ho tanta fiducia in Lei ma non ne ho minimamente nei militari.
    Buona fortuna ingegnere.
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro:
    Thank you, but much work has still to be done, and until something has to be done to achieve something, it is as nothing has be done in the same achieving process.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pietro F.:
    1- Yes, they have
    2- Yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pietro F.

    Buongiorno sig. Rossi,

    dalle sue risposte in questo forum si presume che gli scienziati/ingegneri militari abbiano una conoscenza profonda dell’ecat, sbaglio?
    Ha condiviso la sua tecnologia con qualche altro soggetto (militare per esempio) al fine di trovare i finanziamenti e la tecnologia necessaria al prosieguo dello sviluppo dell’ecat?

    Auguri

  • Caro ing. Rossi,complimenti vivissimi per gli ultimi successi ottenuti.Bisogna festeggiare
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    …~~~~~~~~/…~~~~~~~~/
    ….~~~~~~~/…..~~~~~~~/
    …..~~~~~~/…….~~~~~~/
    ……~~~~~/………~~~~~/
    …….~~~~/………..~~~~/
    ……..~~~/………….~~~/
    ………~~/……………~~/
    ……….~/……………..~/
    ………..||………………||
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    ……./******\………./******\

    Fonte: http://simboli-facebook.com/tag/brindisi/#ixzz1vgfakj7e

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco:
    Thank you for your patience,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Carlo Marcena:
    Physistry…I suppose you want to make a sort of a syncretism between Physics and Chemistry: nice.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Carlo Marcena

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    again, my congratulations and appreciation for your work!
    I would like to suggest a new name for the new scientific discipline LENR, and e-cat related movements, are making to emerge: Physistry.
    My I have a reaction on this proposal, from you and the participants in this blog? I would be proud of your answers.

    Thanks,
    CM

  • Francesco

    Dear ing. Rossi
    Yes … You are right … In the end, also i work in this way.
    In my technical field i have always experienced the circuits before obtaining an optimized design.
    The fact is that, unable to attend or you can directly see your work, on wave of enthusiasm i let him go to speculative considerations that do not take into account the real situation.
    We will have patience!
    A fact however, are no doubt … That less will be the auxiliary energy required to trigger the reaction, the greater the efficiency of the reactor.
    In any case I am an incurable optimist and waiting for other good news i wish you a good job.
    Best Regards
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco:
    Please wait that we finish the test and then we will make realistic projections.
    Your consideration could be good, but I am a Galileian: first do, then assume.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Francesco

    Dear ing. Rossi
    I would like some comments on the E-cat.2 , having 600 °C stable and time of pre-heating lower than the version AND-cat.1
    With some calculation (approximate and theoretical) of thermodynamics on a unitary power of 1 kW heat, i think that:
    – 1) 0.36 kW thermical heat are used to produce the energy pre heating;
    – 2) 0.64 kW thermical heat are ‘surplus’;
    – 3) 0.32 kW mechanics are obtainable with yield 50% of the turbine;
    – 4) 0.29 kW of electricity are obtainable whereas electrical losses and kinematic approximately 10 %;
    then (always in theory) i spend 1kW thermal to obtain 0.29 kW of electricity, with an overall yield of 30 %.
    Does not seem to be evil if we consider the reduced cost of fuel!
    It remains for us to resolve the problem of the cue ‘electric’ that could be provided by ‘supercapacitors or accumulators of last generation, loaded during the ‘autosustain’.
    Please rebuke me ing. Rossi, if they are too optimistic.
    Warms Regards
    F.T.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Carlo Salvi:
    1- faster
    2- less
    3- yes
    4- changed
    5- yes
    6- no: they have different purposes.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonella:
    Thanks,
    Warm Regards,
    A.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Herbert Gillis:
    Interesting, but I suspect the efficiency integral along that path is not as you think.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Herbert Gillis

    Congratulations on your (latest) temperature breakthrough. If the new device prooves to be industrially practical you might want to consider using it for thermally assistted electrolysis of water. See web site below for background.
    http://www.weltemp.eu/project.html
    If you can make hydrogen directly then you are not limited for electricity production, because hydrogen fuel cells are more efficient then turbines. Cheap hydrogen would also prove very useful in the chemical process industry.

  • Antonella

    Dear Andrea,

    I had good luck but also good idea: it’s made on my design!

  • Carlo Salvi

    Dear Mr Rossi
    About the new 600° celsius e-cat:

    1)Does it start with the same time of the the “first” ecat or is it more faster to began to work ?

    2)Does it uses the same quantity of Ni/H ?

    3)Do you think it still can work for 6 month with one recharge or the new version “burns” NI/H faster ?

    4)Are the “ashes” still composed with 30% copper or something’s changed ?

    5)Do you think this new product will require a different certification from the “old” version ?

    6) when the new product will be released, this will replace the first version or do you think you’ll sell both products ?

    Thank you very much, and good luck Mr Rossi.

    Carlo Salvi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Antonalla:
    he,he,he…good luck!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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