Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi
Msc Solid state Physics, Gujartat University, Gujarat, India
MS Computer Engineering, Univ of Lowell, Lowell, Mass, USA

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Abstract

Review of the periodic table and existing research on isotopes of the various elements of the periodic table is conducted and the attempt is made here to visualize the process of element formation.

The role of Neutron in element formation is investigated and found to be vital for existence of elements . In the new light, the new model of nucleus is proposed which explains the stability of the  nuclei and reason for multiple stable isotopes of elements.

Review of the Periodic Table

The inspection of the periodic table of elements reveal an interesting fact that for all elements other than Hydrogen, for element to be stable, number of Neutrons are always greater or equal, to the number of Protons in the nucleus.  The periodic table is analyzed with respect to the abundance in nature for the elements.

The fusion of Hydrogen to produce Helium can be envisioned as follows:

1H + 1H + 1H + 1H →  2H + 2N + 2e+ (1)

where 2e+ later annihilating to produce additional gamma radiation.

Since tremendous force is needed to keep four protons together during the formation of helium and emit 2 positrons, it is unlikely.  The mass of neutron is more than the mass of proton and this fact  alone negates the likeliness of the above scenario.

In another scenario, the formation of helium may be envisioned as four neutrons coming close together to form a stable nuclei of Helium as follows:
4N → 2N + 2P + 2e (2)
Here the mass of Neutron is higher than the Proton.  The Neutron releases electron to form proton. Also justifies the reason for the  Proton to be lighter than the Neutron.
Thus it is assumed that
  1. Neutrons are the building blocks for elements in nature.
  2. In the elements , other than hydrogen, neutron and proton form a pair (np) and keeps distinct identity.
  3. Excess neutrons stay at the center of the nuclei but keeps their distinct identity.
Using the above assumption the periodic table is analyzed by finding excess neutrons for all  stable isotopes of elements as follows:
Excess neutrons = Atomic mass – 2P where P is the number of Protons for the element
The relative abundance of Isotopes is obtained from the research papers and wikipedia and is included in the Table 1, 2 ,3. The relative abundance is indicative of the preferred state for the element (nuclei) in nature.
The following facts are found as a result of analysis:
For Odd atomic number nuclei:
  • Abundance of isotope is close to 100% when excess neutrons are odd count.
  • If the excess neutron count is even, the isotope is radio active.
  • Majority elements have only one Isotope.
  • Only Potassium has three isotopes, the one with 2 excess neutron is radio active with 0.001 relative abundance.
For Even atomic number nuclei:
  • Elements He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S are close to one in abundance with no excess neutron and maximum three isotopes.
  • Element Be has one excess neutron and one isotope, 100% abundance.
  • All other higher elements require four or more excess neutrons for the element to be abundant in nature and has up to 10 stable isotopes.
  • Element Ca is exception with 0 excess neutron and 97% abundance. However it is unstable with >E+21 a Half life.
Atomic number 43 (Tc) and 61 (Pm) has no stable isotopes in nature.
Thus from the above analysis, it looks like that all nuclei, stable or otherwise,  prefers to keep at least one neutron at the center of the nuclei from its excess count. The remaining excess neutrons stay very close to the center keeping its own identity. The other neutrons pair up with each proton and stay close together to the proton (like heavy hydrogen) but maintains its separate identity.

The nature prefers, for more complex nucleus, more neutrons than protons and creates a delicate balance to form a stable nuclei.

This balance of forces is so critical that in case of element F (the stable isotope is with  9 proton and 10 neutrons) The isotope 18F with 9 Protons and 9 Neutrons, with in 20 minutes decays and forms 18O which is stable with 8 protons and 10 Neutrons and gives up a e+ positron to convert proton to neutron and e+ and e- reaction produces Gama radiation.

Equation   18F → 18O + e+

Thus the existence of Neutron is vital to the existence of the universe itself, because without neutron, elements may not have been possible and hence the intelligence as we know today.

Structure of Neutron

The fact that Gravitational binding forces (Fg) of masses in the nucleus needs to be more than the destructive electromagnetic forces (Fem) created by the electrically positive environment of the nucleus,  (Fem < Fg) excess neutrons are required in the nuclei. However, even at the center of the nucleus neutrons keep their distinct identity, rather than lumping together to form one heavy neutron. Therefore, neutron can not be just a fuzzy mass but a well defined structure able to hold induced charges with precise demarcation of boundary with an insulating layer, more like a free standing capacitor. Which suggests that at least three particles with two sets of characteristics are required to create a neutron. For our model here, that has to be two particles capable of holding charges and one particle which provides insulation between these particles, similar to that of dielectric layer in the capacitor. Thus in this postulated model the neutron looks and behaves neutral for all practical purposes. However, within nuclei keeps separate and distinct identity and does not combine with other neutrons to form a one central heavy body.

The proposal here defers from the model independent analysis predicting the structure having negative charge on the surface, Positive charge in the next lower level and than neutral  mass. My model suggests that neutron is a free standing charged capacitor. This helps in keeping the distance between excess neutron in the nuclei. Otherwise there is nothing stopping these neutrons from lumping together to form a mini neutron star with in the nuclei. This model of Neutron is justified from the known fact that Neutron is heavier than Proton.

For elements other than Hydrogen, the nuclei becomes a chaotic environment. For Example, in case of

4He, two protons require their space and wants to be separate from each other as far as possible, and two neutrons are caught between the two protons as shown in figure 1.  From the reference frame of protons it is envisioned that Neutrons spin on its axis at very high rotational speed. One clockwise and other anticlockwise.

Model of nuclei

A new model of nuclei is proposed as shown in the figure 3. A spherical shell of excess neutrons with one neutron at the center of the shell surrounded by paired proton neutron (pn) shell.

For the stable nuclei system the electromagnetic forces needs to be balanced and gravitational forces maximized.  From the example of 4He above, it is envisioned that  elements are built, in this model, by Heavy Hydrogen nuclei (pn) as a building block and just enough excess neutrons to provide needed gravitational force for stability.

Energy levels (orbitals) in pn outer shell follows the similar shell structure of electrons, with K,L,M,N,O being primary shell and s, p, d, f, g sub shells with similar total charge particle capacity. However for excess neutron shell it differs, where a single neutron stays at the center of the nuclei when in excess. The energy level for that central neutron in this model is called “Foundation neutron” (Fn).

The Table 4 shows the placement of neutrons in each shell.

Nuclei Stability Analysis using above model

For Odd atomic number nuclei:

In the ‘p-n shell’ the outermost pair has no symmetry, however the excess neutron shell is symmetrical for all odd atomic number elements giving the stability and abundance. Referring to table 2 and table 4 , isotopes, with one excess neutron, has relative abundance in nature of 1 or close to 1,  The excess neutron takes the place of Fn.  The isotopes with 2 excess neutrons are all radio active which can be attributed to the asymmetry of neutron in unfilled K shell, which can hold up to 2 neutrons. When the K shell is completely filled as in the case of 41K, the nuclei is stable. Table 2 outlines isotopes and abundance for majority of elements, all follow the same principle and model fits perfectly with the exception of 14N with atomic number 7. Iodine has 21 excess neutrons, as we see in table 4, the outer most excess neutron shell is symmetrical, making it stable. All other elements follows.

For Even atomic number nuclei:

The stability is obtained from the pn shell. However, excess neutron shell  becomes asymmetric and depending on which sub shell, there is a room for additional excess neutrons and hence exhibits many stable isotopes with relative abundance. Theoretical probability calculation may prove this fact.

Instability and radio activity in heavy elements:

The neutron proton (np) pair in nuclei has capability to grow indefinitely. However as the heavier elements are built the inner excess neutron shell is large enough to interact with lower np shells, thus giving instability to the nuclei. e.g. for 238U there are 148 total neutrons and 54 excess neutrons.  A nuclei with 111 excess neutron will completely fill up the O shell. All elements after 209Bi are radio active, this shows that interaction of neutrons form excess neutron shell(inner shell) with pn shell is destructive when the N shell is half filled. Thus there is a upper limit to the size of the  inner excess neutron shell and this may be the reason for non existence of super heavy stable elements in nature.

Conclusion

This proposed model of nuclei, explains the stability and relative abundance of the nuclei. The nuclei(except for H and He) in this model is a shell with in a shell, where an innermost shell structure is formed with excess neutrons with one Fundamental foundation neutron (Fn) and the rest arranged in shell structure. Protons, form pair with neutron and form shell enclosing this excess neutron shell as shown in figure 3. The stability of the nuclei is a direct result of symmetrical placement of neutrons in the outer most shell of excess neutron shell. The same shell is responsible for many stable isotopes in even atomic number nuclei. The additional isotopes are possible if the outer shell of excess neutron shell holds odd number of neutrons. The nature of neutron is postulated here, the proof of which depends on future experiments.

References

Numerous Scientists’ and scholars’ exhausting work in development of periodic table, investigation of Isotopes is utilized and due credits are given. The list is too large to print here, but due credits are mentally given to all scientists.

by Bhagirath Shantilal Joshi

788 comments to Excess neutron shell model of Nuclei

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jane Gooders:
    First of all: please tell to your son to avoid to talk of my tech at school, if this puts him against his teachers: his teachers, in this part of his life, are enormously more important for him than I am.
    About the weight: 30 kg; volume: cm. 40 x 40 x 40.
    Warmest Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jane Gooders

    Dear Andrea,

    I have been following the E-Cat story with great interest since February. Like many others contributing to this forum, my primary feelings about this breakthrough are for the enormous potential your invention will open up in so many fields of scientific endeavour, and for improvements to human welfare, and it is for these you will be recognised in due course.

    My son is studying the sciences at school and hopes to become a professional in the field in a few years, although I expect that there will be some changes in opportunities and perspective once this new technology becomes widely known and available. None of his teachers or fellow students were aware of this breakthrough, and in a mirror to the “real world” he has been ridiculed for bringing this to their attention. Fortunately it has not deterred him, but rather reinforced his interest in what other possibilities may be out there, buried by “experts”.

    On a personal note, I have a question that I have not yet seen answered here, which is why I am writing to you now. We have ordered a 10KW Unit via the website, and will use it to provide heat and later electricity for our sailing boat which we will be living on full time in a few years in the Scandinavian area. With that in mind, we would like to understand approximately how heavy this unit will be (if you know yet), as it will need to be moved around quite often in this environment.

    Many Thanks for your kind attention to our questions,
    Jane

  • Italo A. Albanese

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    1) What do you mean with “retrofitting” a hot water generator to electrical generator? To withstand the temperature and pressure needed for electrical generation, you’ll have to change about everything!
    2) When you will build millions of e-cats at a price “enough low to forbid any competition”, don’t you fear that anti-trust regulations will stop you?

    Best regards,
    Italo A.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Richard Lyman:
    I have put you in the pre-order waiting list.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Fyodor:
    1- No
    2- In due time we will give information about its operation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Fyodor

    Mr. Rossi

    1. Congratulations on your recent improvement in cost and efficiency for the 10KW products. Is there any chance you can share with us the name of the partner that has helped you make this improvement? Or tell us more information about the improvement itself

    2. How is your progress on the second 1MW plant? Is this being built in the US? Can you tell us yet where in the US the work is being done?

    Thank you for taking the time to answer my questions. I know that you are very busy.

    Happy Holidays
    Fyodor

  • Richard Lyman

    How can I get a reservation for a 5 or 10 kw unit, or whatever the final production size will be?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Fiorenzani:
    Why do you want to limit the walk of the Cats?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Gherardo:
    The price will be enough low to forbid any competition. At that point the reverse engineering will be a hobby, not a source of competition, so that everything will become easier. This is the battle we won during these days: we made a titanic step forward, derived from a lucky idea and from the huge possibilities our new Partners have opened to us. The price will be much lower than you said, but we will declare the price when we will be ready: remember, if I say one thing, I have to do it. Anyway: the first version will produce hot water and heating, but it will be able to be retrofitted with the electric power generation when we will be ready also with it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Frank Acland:
    1- We are making it
    2- We will necessaruly have to do this.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    You mention the need to produce 1 million e-cats immediately in order to meet your goals. This is certainly ambitious, but it would be very exciting for you to be able to do this.

    1. Do you have the production infrastructure (including outsourcing) to build this many plants?
    2. Are you process enough nickel powder to fuel this many e-cats?

    Wishing you the very best for 2012!

    Frank Acland

  • Gherardo

    As soon as you’ll deliver a 10Kw thermal + 3Kw electric (that sould be 20Kw thermal) unit at 10K€ with 100€ per recharge I’ll rush for it.
    What do you think of this price point?

    BTW, is it technically possible to stock recharges (whatever they are) so we have a few years of energy indipendence already at home?

    Thanks, Gherardo

  • Francesco Fiorenzani

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    At this moment, are you interested to produce domestic e-cat or
    e-cat oriented to an industrial market ?

    Warm Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Scott H.:
    Your pre-order has been accepted. I love Alaska and probably I will come to deliver it personally to you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Scott H.

    Please add me to your list for a 10kw unit. Need desperately in Fairbanks Alaska.

    Thank You VERRY much.

  • Scott H.

    Hello Mr. Rossi

    I am always looking for a great use of your e-cat. This article shows how valuable the e-cat can be to remote minning companies. I will e-mail them and I suggest you do the same.
    http://www.petroleumnews.com/pnads/329784516.shtml

    Thank You

  • Dietmar

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I know, it works.

    1.) Ni-H is a very heavy nuclear reaction.
    2.) No new laws in physics are needed to describe all the experiments.
    3.) The Gammapeak at 659.854 keV is the aequivalent to the pep Neutrino,
    detected by the Borexino Detector in Nov 2011.

    When you build a machine, 1.) is the most important.
    The Nickel in the reaction works as catalysator, to fuse H+H to D.
    In this thinking, the slow, free neutrons, who produce copper, Iron and and and
    are not welcome. But they are needed in the build process of D. With a magnetic
    field and chosing the Isotopes of Nickel,
    you have the control, which elements are build. And heavy elements are
    exponential to their atomnumber not build, because so much energy is needed,
    when you start building them from Nickel.
    This is other in U-235.

    When you build a nuclear reactor, in first has to be the safety for everyone.

    The big advantage in this nuclear reactor is, that nearly only elements with
    Isotopes with short halftime are build.
    The fuel for this reactor is really cheap.

    Rossi starts with a ready machine. I think, not so much can be done better in a
    short time, than Rossi did.

    Big machines are much worse controllable, this noticed Rossi.
    His machine is a well calculated compromiss for this.

    You can build a generator in any size. For notebook, car, rocket.
    But for this, how it can be made safe is the most important.
    A lot of tests are needed, making reactor run out of control in any size, MAKE
    any kind of accident. After you are more clever,
    Dietmar

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Francesco Fiorenzani: I hope within 2012. We must have a production of 1 million pieces immediately, to put the price at a level to reach these strategic targets:
    1- allow everybody to buy it
    2- kill the competition
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Michel:
    Thank you, Same to you!
    A.R.

  • Michel

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    My best wishes for 2012, may this year be a year of consecration for you after all the efforts you already done.

    Michel

  • Francesco Fiorenzani

    Dear Andrea Rossi

    are you able to give a date or a period (summer of 2012 for example) in which you will put in the market your e-cat ? my question is about the first generation of e-cat that produce only thermal power…

  • Mike Bax

    Hello mr Rossi,

    I just saw a program about sterling engines on the discovery channel, which showed a commercially available device for in the home that burns gas and turns the heat to electricity with 90% efficiency. Their website is http://www.whispergen.com

    Please have a look at their products. Combining their sterling engine with your e-cat would create an ideal solution for power generation in the home.

    Regards and merry Christmas!

  • nima

    Dear rossi please read this
    article, this is a Very interesting theory that can explain everything about cold fusion.

    Feasibility of Cold Fusion from a point of view of the BSM – Supergravitation Unified theory
    http://vixra.org/pdf/1112.0043v2.pdf

  • Dietmar

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I work as a teacher at school and here I have not the possibility to test everything. I have a Diploma in Physics and I worked with Hydrogen,
    some exotic metals and I got a nice feeling, intuition, when I found something.
    This feeling I have just now about my formula for Cold Fusion.
    Some remarks to this formula:

    p + p+e+v + p+e+v = D + n + 659.854 keV (Gammaray)

    It has some similarities with the fission of U-235.
    1.) 1n, 2n, 4n, 8n, 16n, 32n, 64n… chain reaction
    2.) Real consumption of Hydrogen
    3.) Reducing the pressure: 3 H2 goes to 1 D2
    4.) Transmutation of Elements (because slow neutron)
    5.) In first place not a consumption of Nickel. Nickel works in first place as a catalyzator. So, this reaction depends not direct on Nickel.
    6.) Exact energybilance. The formula produces a sharp peak of gammaray,
    659,854 keV, that has been seen in nearly every experiment of cold fusion. This peak appears also in palladium, but only when Hydrogen is used (Pons, Fleischman)
    7.) When the reaction started, it depends not longer on the surface or the size of Nickel. Even bulk Nickel can be used.
    8.) With some percent of D, the reaction stopps, because now you give something to the right side of this reaction, so not more from the right side is produced, left side stays as before, means no energy, no new neutrons (Mass action law in chemistry)
    9.) Because 3 H2 goes to 1 D2 you can make a test of the Law of multiple proportions (Dalton)
    10.) You have the possibilty to test, how you can force, catalyze the generations of Neutron via p+e+v and 782.333 keV.

    Please, what do you think about this formula for Cold Fusion?
    Albert Einstein says: Any good modell can be found somewhere in nature, you just have to open your eyes and see,
    Dietmar

  • Wladimir Guglinski

    Bhagirath Joshi wrote in December 23rd, 2011 at 10:20 PM

    Dear Reader:

    The recent news of CERN “Neutrino experiment repeat at Cern finds same result” Article at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-15791236 creates interesting scenario.

    In fact, if these results are true than our ( Wladimir Guglinski and I) argument that planks constant is actually a variant will hold. It is well known that speed of light is not constant in all medium.

    Dear Joshi,
    as I already wrote here in Rossi’s blog, only Quantum Ring Theory can save Einstein’s relativity:

    “In the page 203 of QRT is proposed the structure of the neutrino: it is formed by positron-electron moving in helical trajectory.
    […]
    Therefore the neutrino is not matter, in the sense we know what matter is.
    […]
    The light has its limit of speed in space thanks to the interaction of the photon (and its helical trajectory) with the aether that fills the space. The matter cannot get the speed of light because its mass increases with the growth of the speed, because of the interaction matter-aether. If a particle of matter would get the speed of light, its mass would become infinite.
    But the neutrino does not obey to such rules. As the neutrino is not matter (in the sense we konw the properties of matter), then it is not submitted to the laws of relativity proposed by Einstein.”

    See the link in ZPEnergy:
    http://www.zpenergy.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=3318

  • Dietmar

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    please take a close look about my idea for Cold Fusion. It works not only in Nickel.

    p + p+e+v + p+e+v = D + n + 659.854 keV (Gammaray)

    This would mean for any cold fusion:
    A proton becomes Neutron, together with a proton it becomes
    Deuterium and the resonanzenergy from this forms
    another proton to a neutron, leaving 659.854 keV for gamma ray.
    This could be easy tested: From 3 protons you receive one Deuterium
    and a neutron, which makes after this the transmutation with any element in the cell, meaning also more heavy elements.

    The values are all correct.
    To form a neutron, you need a proton, an elektron, an antineutrino and
    782.333 keV energy.
    This multiplied via 2.
    The building from a Deuterium from a proton and an neutron gives energy free at 2224.52 keV.
    From this 2224.52-2*782.333=659.854 keV, the gamma ray,

    http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/FocardiSevidenceof.pdf
    They found a Gammapeak always at 661.5 keV.
    The same peak was found in the original work from Pons and Fleischman. Because my idea not depends on Nickel, it is also valid for Palladium. The 661.5 keV
    Gammyray peak was only seen in Pons and Fleischmann
    when they use normal Hydrogen.

    Nice to hear from you,
    Dietmar

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Joseph Fine:
    Thank you and again Merry Christmas!
    Andrea Rossi

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea,

    The only other person who works so many hours on Christmas Eve is Saint Nicholas. You will need many elves to help you manufacture and service so many E-Cats. Our best wishes for 2012.

    Joseph

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Martin:
    In this period we did not talk too much and we did not give substantial news, but we worked tremendously on the business side and now I can say we have the Partners who will allow us to produce sooner than expected the 10 kW E-Cats at a price that will kill the Copy-Cats of the competitors. The first generation will produce heat, and will be able to be retrofitted to produce also electricity when we will be ready for it.
    As you see, it’s midnight of the Eve of Christmas and I am still working.
    Merry Christmas!
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Doug Hulstedt MD:
    Your pre-order has been accepted, of course: thank you.
    Yes, all the E-Cats of the first generation, which will produce only heat, will be retrofittable to produce also electricity.
    I want specific names of autistic children who need help: we are ready to help, but I want to be sure that the money goes to them.
    Merry Christmas,
    A.R.

  • Doug Hulstedt MD

    Ing Rossi,
    Merry Christmas and happy holidays.
    Please place our household on the list for the Ecats.
    by the time they are ready for 2nd generation will they have electric?
    Please don’t forget autistic children and their families in giving back.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear John Di Rico:
    Thanks for all, please read my answer to Prof. Saba: I think it also interests you.
    Merry Christmas,
    A.R.

  • Dear Readers, This information is for people who are interested in kinetic/latent energy and the flow dynamics of the atom or a structure. There is a technology with regards the understanding of ‘the static and mobile mechanics of energy interaction’. By such an understanding it is possible to demonstrate the latent and kinetic energy of a structure. This technology when embodied in a mechanical design can because of specific flow dynamics be referred to as a ‘bi-polar unifying field oscillator’. How this technology comes about is by reasoning that everything in nature is of a duality/binary system, that the Earth is constructed from four dimensions and that positive and negative gravity originate by the same means but because of a factor with regards distance, time/duration enters the equation with regards adaptation of the structure, thats been constructed, to evolutionary environmental changes. If you are able to comprehend atomic dimensions with regards basic flows and force (the same forces and flows that exist in the make-up of the Earth) then you can get a better understanding of kinetics. Every structure has four basic levels of existence, each level occupies a 90 degree angle of a whole 360 degrees. The Earth is an inclusion of a structure of four helical trajectories. Each level has relativeness to a dimension of density, this is with regards to within the Earth on the underside of the mantle and of the Earth on the mantle. The mantle can be considered, with regards its structuring process, as four pivots supporting four inner helical trajectories and four outer helical trajectories. To investigate this technology you have to construct a simple mechanism that resembles a collapsed atom or planet with regards being one dimensional rather than four and being able to induce specic flows and forces.

    The mechanism can be built in several ways according to its intended application. You can construct either an eight rotor or a four rotor but they have to be in multiples of four or more.

    Here are the specifications:- Draw two circles one within the other. The one within sits midway in a centripetal position. If a four rotor, divide into four equal sections using two diameters, if an eight divide into eight equal sections using four diameters. Where these diameters cross the inner circle is where each rotor is positioned. Each rotor supports two propeller blades, preferably square pitch. These blades all rotate in the same direction and overlap by 50% and therefore they have to be synchronized by a timing sequence to prevent strike. The depth with regards the frame has to compliment the pitch of the propellers. At the innermost point of the propellers the frame depth should be one quarter of the pitch, at the outermost point of the propellers the depth should be one eighth and the mantle/pivot is in keeping with the slope. If its an eight rotor you will have a sixteen chamber frame, eight inner and eight outer within which helical trajectories will be formed. The rotors are at the mantle position. When these rotors spin air is forced into the respective chambers creating oscillating curvature forces of flow to be set in motion. As these spinning vortexes exit their inner and outer chambers they collide and unwind creating a laminar flow to be created from two curvature flows (this laminar flow has no turbulence and thereby the mechanism is absolutely silent in operation). The oscillating helical trajectories create by their activity a ‘static boundary layer’ around the produced laminar flow. There is also established within this integral set-up of flow, an internal ‘economy flow’ that represents positive gravity and that back flows within the system from outer chamber to inner chamber i.e. it cycles within the internal dimensions. This mechanism with its internal system of flow clearly demonstrates a unified field with regards flows and forces and helps explain how lasers are produced by atomic dimensions. The label ‘the static and mobile mechanics of energy interaction’ applies to both the flow dynamics and the embodied mechanism i.e. the mobile propeller set-up with that of the static frame. The static boundary layer surrounding the laminar flow extends out to a distance that equals the dimension of the propeller area of sweep and this outer area must be provided with a canopy that forms a partial enclosure of 50% in the underside of the fuselage, so as to form an insulation and prevent the mechanism from exerting its powerful horizontal attractive force.

    This technology has been around for quite some time but because of the systemic system of human evolution it has not been made available for study within main stream physics. However, we are entering a new era that requires a higher level of atomic understanding but this, as we are all witnessing, only applies to those able to comprehend and vision this exciting challenge with regards the micro and macro level of existence. This mechanical set-up as described produces a unified physical field of flow but really it represents an introduction into the more energetic non physical fields of flow that involve photons and their association with structure. As stated previously, binary systems are a requirement that also apply to forces and flows and therefore, if you desire to explore, at the macro level our environment and compare it to that of another an embodied binary system has to be used.
    This is something I may present but I shall have to think about it because really its of no value at this time and I would not recommend anyone to embody the theory just because of curiosity. This information may help to explain why I say, I am mechanical not chemical. Regards Eric Ashworth.

  • John DiRico

    Mr. Rossi
    I would like extend my best wishes to you, your family, all the hard working members of your team, and all the devoted followers all over the world, we believe in you and we will stand by you, and we hope that 2012 will bring us closer to the dream of having safe, clean, and affordable Energy for all, including heat and electricity in one unit, as you know we appreciate the time you take in your busy schedule to answer many of our questions and look forward for any new E-cat news you can give us, and we hope we get to see the E-Cat live stream soon and the public customer willing to show off the 1MW plant at work, Thanks again Best wishes Buon Natale and a prosperous new Year.

    John D

  • Alfonso Troisi

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I want to wish you, and your team, Merry Christmass, and thank you for making everybody’s 2012 better ( at least until the 21st of december, Ja ja)
    Thank you also for taking time to answer our questions. It makes me feel part of this event.
    BUON NATALE E BUON ANNO!!! also to the fellow followers of your blog.

  • Martin

    Dear Andrea,

    Unfortunally we still have a fossil fueled Christmas holiday this year. Altough i will enjoy this holiday very much I hope 2012 will bring us a very nice present under the christmastree! (green energy e-cat!!) I’ts hard for your fanatic followers this times because we don’t hear a lot af new information. I hope you will fuel our information needs the coming period! I have also a small question. As you metioned the progress of producing electricity with ecats i was thinking about the 10 kw ecat.
    Will you diliver them also with the option to produce electricity?

    Mery Christmas (and i hope you will also have some days off!)

    Best regards Martin

  • Bhagirath Joshi

    Dear Reader:

    The recent news of CERN “Neutrino experiment repeat at Cern finds same result” Article at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-15791236 creates interesting scenario.

    In fact, if these results are true than our ( Wladimir Guglinski and I) argument that planks constant is actually a variant will hold. It is well known that speed of light is not constant in all medium.

    Sincerely
    Bhagirath Joshi

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Rick Meisinger:
    Right, and not just a NASCAR racer, but a NASCAR racer for all. We must arrive to a production of millions of pieces to make the price accessible to all.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Iggy Dalrymple:
    We are working very well in the USA. Anyway the industrial development of the production of our E-Cats will make necessary to develope a diffused manufacturing network, encompassing the outsourcing implementation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Iggy Dalrymple

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    While I wish you well in your efforts to manufacture and market in the US, I am pessimistic because of opposition from old energy and from hot fusion academia.

    Shouldn’t you hedge your position by also producing in an industrialized energy-poor country such as Japan, Germany, or S Korea?

    Sincerely,
    Iggy Dalrymple

  • Rick Meisinger

    I agree with Kim that 2012 will be a great year. Hoping that 2012 will be full of inspired ideas and Divine connections and that the E-Cat will transform from the model T to a NASCAR racer. All of the best for you and your family!

    With much appreciation and support;
    R.M.

  • Dietmar

    New calculation:
    On the Nickel surface, the H2 molekule is separated in H+ and H- (this is validated, called Hydrid).
    Now, all is going on with H-.
    Compare with a Bohr:
    Z=28, mH+/me = 1836
    you get a Bohr/(28*1836)=1*10^-15m

    That should be small enough :-)
    for any fusion,
    greetings Dietmar

    PS: When you know the spectrum from H-,
    it can be easy identified, that this is the real cause for any Cold Fusion, Transmutation of elements.

  • Dietmar

    “The hydrogen anion is a negative hydrogen ion, H−. It is an important constituent of the atmosphere of stars, such as the Sun, where it is the dominant absorber of photons with energies in the range 0.75-4.0 eV, ranging from the infrared into the visible spectrum (Rau 1999). It also occurs in the Earth’s ionosphere (Rau 1999).

    Its existence was first proven theoretically by Hans Bethe in 1929 (Bethe 1929). H− is unusual because it has no bound excited states, as was finally proven in 1977 (Hill 1977). It has been studied experimentally using particle accelerators (Bryant 1977).”
    From Wikipedia,
    dietmar.stoelting@t-online.de

  • Dietmar

    Hi all,
    what do you think about my idea for Fusion from Hydrogen with Nickel?

    When the hydrogen ion enters the lattice of Nickel,
    the plus charge from Hydrogen is overcompromised from the large electron
    density
    about this Hydrogen ion.
    I calculatet the overcompromised charge to about 0.5e (minus!!!).
    (In far distance from this Hydrogen ion it comes to oscillationen of that
    Hydrogen potential, to reach a value to zero for charge all together.)

    What an idea: Now the NEGATIV Hydrogen Ion surrounds the Nickel nucleus,
    like a VERY heavy electron:-).
    And look at the parameters: Half charge of an electron, but 1800 mass
    of an elektron. My calculation ist: because of dielectric shilding,
    that the distance compared with a-Bohr is:
    28 smaller because of Z=28 from Nickel, 1800 smaller because of big mass
    compared to Electron, 2 bigger because half of charge of electron and 64
    bigger
    because of Dielectric shielding.
    All together this gives a distance to 1/394 a-Bohr, means
    1.3*10^-13 m
    short enough for fusion,

    Nice to hear from you,
    Dietmar

    PS:A Myon has a mass of 207 electrons and same charge.
    Myon catalyzed Fusion happens.
    The radius is 1/207 a-Bohr,
    so, this value is short enough, compare with calculation above,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Kim Patterson:
    Merry Christmas to you: yes, it will be a great year the 2012.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Kim Patterson

    2012 will be a great year
    Merry Christmas Andrea Rossi

    Respect
    Kim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Michel Malengret:
    First of all, I am not Professor.
    I am delighted to read that in South Africa you are interested to our job.
    If you want to visit us, you will be very welcome.
    Please contact me:
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Best Wishes to you too,
    A.R.

  • Dear Professor Rossi,

    I am a prof at University of Cape Town. I would be very interested in being included in the future.

    Africa has pressing needs to come up with a cheap source of energy and would be greatful to be part of it’s future implementation.

    Best wishes for 2012

    Dr M. Malengret University of Cape Town Elec Eng department

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Luiz Carlos:
    Please contact Ampenergo:
    ccassarino@lti-global.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stefania Conti:
    Yes,
    W E-Cat!
    A.R.

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