Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

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by
U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@gmail.com
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Abstract

During Ni-H collisions, proton (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel nucleus and electron (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel electronic shell and forms Copper with no emission of alpha or beta or gamma rays.
or mole number of such Ni-H atomic fusions, as hydrogen atom is losing its identity, binding energy of electron is converted into heat energy of ~1.3×106 joules.
As the temperature of the system increases, more number of hydrogen atoms may fuse with more number of Nickel atoms liberating more heat energy.
Selection of the target cold fusion atom seems to follow the condition: selected stable atom’s Z+1 is a new stable element with odd atomic number.
Fineness of the Ni powder may help H atoms to fuse with ease causing more number of Ni-H fusions.

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1,178 comments to Role of the binding energy of electron of the hydrogen atom in Ni-H cold fusion

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco:
    Maybe, in future, who knows?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Kurt Haller:
    Possibly, eventually.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,

    There is a lot of information in the patent documents.

    New information rises recursively new ideas and questions.

    I now only have questions, which I think you do not want to answer.

    That’s a bit unfortunate. It makes thinking useless.

    That would make Cartesius (René Descartes) unhappy.

    Kind Regards,

    Koen

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,
    I was thinking of an analogy: think of the coffee cartridges like Nespresso. You make the fuel (coffee) mix and let the boiler expert make the outer machinery!
    And we hope to get a good coffee!

    Fragrant regards,
    Marco.

  • Kurt Haller

    Dr Rossi:
    Do you think you will sell the domestic E-Cats also online?
    Thanks,
    Kurt

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    1- yes
    2- yes
    3- with only Ni and H I never got any anomalous effect
    6- the intellectual property is owned by Leonardo Corporation
    7- maybe yes
    All the other questions are related to patents either pending or in preparation
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    1 – Was lithium used in your first public experiment in 2011?

    2 – Was lithium used in the test Dr. Levi conducted in 2011 in which a reactor heated water from 15C to 20C and produced an average of 15kW for 18 hours?

    3 – What was the best COP you ever achieved with only nickel and hydrogen (no other additives)?

    4 – Since everything else has been revealed about the Lugano experiment, can you tell us how much open space was in the inner steel tube after fuel and the plugs were added?

    5 – In the Lugano test, was there an air tight seal to contain the hydrogen?

    6 – Will Industrial Heat ever publish any educational materials about the Rossi Effect for universities?

    7 – There is no way of knowing yet how much power in heat or electricity the E-Cat X will produce. However, if the crystal ball says it is remotely possible the heat output might be three kilowatts, how many watts of electrical output would you be satisfied with for the crystal ball to predict? For example, if a fortune teller predicted that the E-Cat X could power one, hundred watt lightbulb, would that be above or below your goal?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    Thanks for the kind words.
    About the ssm
    I will be able to answer after the tests on course.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Nils Fryklund:
    I am answering here to your email:
    right now the power of the E-Cat X prototype is 3 kW, but maybe we will change it when and if we will go ahead with the massive manufacturing of it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea,

    Finally, you got it.
    Awsome !

    Now, after the very positive feeling that comes with the granting of this patent, the urgency to go to the market may be important, and this could even put larger pressure on you and your team. The work is never done.

    I can imagine now what you mean if you say that permanent SSM is not suitable for safety reasons.

    Am I right that E Cat-X has the potential to resolve this, so that near-unlimited SSM is possible ?

    Congratulations,

    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Marco:
    No, it is not correct. The current patent covers the claims.
    Thank you anyway for your suggestions.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    Of course! Sons MUST overcome fathers! ( he,he,he)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alessandro Coppi:
    Math is not an opinion indeed, but physical terms must be correct: kWh/h is not equal to kW: the first term indicates the energy consumed or produced in 1 hour, the second indicates the power of the system, whatever the system is. The term kWh indicates energy, but if you do not refer it to a unit of time it does not give much of information.
    To explain better the concept of energy: 1 kWh is a quantum of energy that corresponds to the energy that an average horse is able to yield working for 1 hour, multiplied by the 1.36 factor. By the way ( less important): k and h must be small letters, W must be capital because is the initial of the family name of Mr Watt.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    John:
    It all depends on how the tests will go. We have to experience the E-Cat X.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • John

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Will the ‘preliminary’ E-Cat X R&D on course be completed in weeks, months, or a year (F9)? Will we hear the results before the end of the 1 MW plant test, if E-Cat X now under construction is indeed supposed to be preliminary and not a commercialized test run?

    Best Regards,

    John

  • Alessandro Coppi

    Hi Andrea, often we can read about KWh/h (kilowatthour per hour), as an unit of consumed energy in a certain lapse of time, but if the math is not an opinion KWh/h is equal to [KW] (power not energy), the energy consumed is well represented simply by [KWh], that represents the energy consumed or not.

    Best regards
    Alessandro Coppi

  • Marco

    Dear Andrea,
    This is my take on future scheduling of the production:
    As far as I can understand the patent currently covers only the fuel “wafer”, right?
    If this is the case, producing and selling the ECat now will expose you to the copy of the whole apparatus, excluding the wafer that is patented. It’s true that the wafer without the electronic is useless, but it’s true also the opposite…
    You stated that the fuel cartridge costs few dollars. But since it’s patented, you can sell it at an adequate price, giving it’s long duration and make your profits on the fuel cartridges… They are much simpler to produce than a boiler with electronics. Has no moving and electronics parts. No warranty mess and troubles. Less shipping and storing costs. If you let produce now by anyone the “boiler” you will have more money and storage to produce millions of cartridges, that you can sell at a high margin price, without the troubles of high temperature machinery… Let the boiler experts produce the boiler, and you produce the fuel wafers.
    In this way you can go even now on the market, without waiting the patents and still making profits with the fuel…

    Think about it…

    Best regards,
    Marco.

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    So 2 one day old E-Cat X ‘s can best one 20 year old Andrea Rossi?

    ;o)

    Paul

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hugh De Vries:
    Thank you for explaining your take.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Sebastian:
    The data related to the E-Cat X will be disclosed ( if it is worth of it) after the preliminary R&D on course of her.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Both.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    I corrected your text in kWh because the unit of energy is the kilowatthour. The energy consumed per hour is written kWh/h, which means kilowatthour per hour.
    I am not ready to answer yoyr question, but the E-Cat X will bear surprises, I hope ( F9).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    The 70 kWh in 24 hours for the E-Cat X, is that in heat, electricity, or a combination?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    So the “baby” eCat-X produces about 3kW of thermal output? Do you foresee scaling the eCat-X to larger thermal outputs or paralleling the units or both?

  • Sebastian

    Andrea,

    When you mention about 70 kWh in 24 hours for the E-Cat X, is this direct electricity generation?

    Warm Regards,

    S

  • Hugh DeVries

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Congratulations on receiving your first U.S. Patent of a planned 64 to protect your IP for the Rossi effect commonly referred to as the E-Cat (Energy Catalyzer). A series of patents are certainly necessary to form a “picket fence” around the E-Cat IP (F9).

    The picture I see of your present E-Cat technology is that it will be a “disruptive” force in the generation of heat (F9). The initial product marketing of the E-Cat will be as a Fluid Heater systems with follow on sales revenue of “Fuel Wafers” for periodic refueling (the razor and razor blade marketing approach).

    The Fuel Wafer in the patent is quite well defined and constructed in a manner to reduce “hot spots”, provide ease of automated manufacture and ease of replacement (some question as to what to do with the spent Fuel Wafers). The patent even allows for a radiation shield as part of the system (hmmm).

    Just my take on the patent.
    Hugh DeVries

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    The E-Cat X is still in construction, and I am very satisfied how she is growing up.
    How many miles will go in 24 hours: well, in 24 hours it is supposed to make about 70 kWh, which corresponds moreless to 60 miles, take it or leave it ( he,he,he)
    Warmest Regards
    A.R.

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    Is the latest E-Cat X up and running?

    How many miles can it go in 24 hours?

    Paul

  • Daniel De Caluwé

    @All Readers,

    The problem appears to be solved. At the moment, the fast loading small search (in the past 100 messages, now 250 messages) works back again very well: http://www.rossilivecat.com/

    @Italo R. and Frank Acland,

    Thank you, but I knew that website ( http://rossilivecat.com/ ) already for a very long time, also with the ‘all’ option ( http://rossilivecat.com/all.html ), but the latter loads very slow. I prefer the other one, with now only 250 messages (in the past only the last 100 messages), that appear to be back working well at the moment (Fingers crossed and F9 ;-).

    Anyhow, thanks for the tip, and also to the anonymous programmer for his/her work.

    Kind Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Very useful, thanks,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tom Conover:
    Thank you for the suggestion, but here is the solution:
    http://rossilivecat.com/all.html
    ( suggested by Frank Acland)
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tom Conover

    Dear Andrea,

    If the http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com is your website, and you can ask for updates to this website, please consider it a kindness to us all to consider forwarding a request to your webmaster as follows:

    —————————————-
    Dear Webmaster,

    Many of our users read our blog for purposes other than commenting on published papers, and would find it useful for us to have a menu item added directly under the “Recent Posts” heading that allows users to select a new option entitled “All Comments”, that is not specific to the papers that are published. This would simply require an update that sorts the comments by date time descending, and perhaps allow for a date range to be selected by the users, defaulting to thirty days, to avoid publishing all 25000. It would also be valuable to export the comments to a csv format for those users who are used to dealing with larger datasets, allowing them to effectively review the very valuable historically significant information that is available in this blog.

    Thank you for considering this request,

    Warm Regards

    ———————————————

  • Italo R.

    To Daniel De Caluwé

    In the first row of the website http://www.rossilivecat.com/ there is the link:
    • Need more context? We also have Rossi’s “entire blog on a single page.”

    Clicking on this link, the page will show all updated comments starting from today

    Best Regards,
    Italo R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea, Daniel,

    This link will take you to all the comments on the JONP ever published (up to Aug 30, 2015)

    http://rossilivecat.com/all.html

    It does take a long time to load!

    Kind regards,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Christopher Jennings:
    I answer here to your comment I received by email because you have not been able to send it to the blog (no problem): you asked my opinion about the technology presented by Bill Gates and Allen related to the nuclear fusion ( hot fusion) device they are financing. Well, it is interesting, but it uses highly radioactive materials. It belongs to the cathegory of the hot nuclear fusion. It has in common with the other hot fusion devices under R&D the mantra: ” within decades of years it will work”. Difficult to know if it is true or not. Anyway, it is a new interesting proposal.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Daniel De Caluwé:
    I am not responsible for http://www.rossilivecat.com and I am not able to answer. The alternative is search the comments not only in the last post of the JoNP, but also in the other posts.
    I do not know absolutely who is behind that website, I just deemed it useful as a shortcut to check the comments.
    They are totally independent from us.
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Daniel De Caluwé

    Dear dr. Rossi,

    From time to time, you advise us to also look at http://rossilivecat.com/ to read new posts that are posted in older discussions.

    But at the moment, this website gives strange results, because it now only shows posts until ‘July 21st, 2015 at 7:16 AM’

    Probably there’s something wrong? ( ‘Website comments to the Webmaster ( webmaster@rossilivecat.com )(who has no contact or connection with Rossi).’ )

    And although I agree with you that it’s an interesting tool in combination with your JNF, and that I also think that this man or woman is someone of goodwill, I wonder if you know who is behind it? Is he or she a party to be trusted? (Don’t forget that he or she, who owns this website, always can retrieve our and your ip-number(s), so there is also a risk that they can find out from where you are posting.

    Also, but this is much less important, I found out in the past that this website only shows new posts that appeared in the last ‘n’ discussions, ‘n’ beïng 10 or 20 or so, but I don’t know exactly how far it is going back.

    Probably there’s nothing wrong with it (I always had the impression that this website is owned by good people of goodwill, who like your endeavor), but I just wanted to let you know.

    Kind Regards
    Daniel.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Sebastian:
    The fact that the F9 key brights up the screen of your computer is surely due to the immense power of our E-Cat in operation here: electromagnetic waves get loose in the space and you never know where the heck they go… ( he,he,he).
    About your questions:
    1- important replications have already been published, I suppose more are on their way, but a massive “replication” will be made when the E-Cats will be on the shelf ( F9).
    2- about 1.5
    3- it depends; the efficiency of a plant in operation in the factory of a Customer, obviously, is measured by calorimetry, because Customers want heat for their production and they measure the heat they get at their point of utilization: they are not at all interested to the science, they want heat at a price lower than with alternative systems; for a laboratory experiment IR measurements have the advantage to be direct, not depending from the efficiency of heat exchangers, but, for example, Dr Alexander Parkhomov has replicated my effect measuring by calorimetry; power analyzers are anyway necessary to measure the energy consumed.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Sorry, Steven, but also your comment, as well as the last comment of Hank Mills, is related to issues that I cannot disclose, because related to other patents, either pending or in preparation, I am working upon.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Hank Mills:
    Sorry, I am not able to answer your questions without disclosing the patents I am working upon and that are either pending or in preparation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Sebastian

    Andrea Rossi,

    Congratulations on your patent and on the advancement of your prototypes (F9).

    The F9 key actually increases brightness on my laptop so it must be a good sign.

    Questions:

    1) Do you expect it to be straightforward for scientists to demonstrate the Rossi effect now that the patent is out?

    2) In the early years of creating the e-cat, what kind of COP did you obtain before yelling “Eureka”

    3) What kind of measurement instrumentation would you use when testing a new device? Do you use thermocouples, IR cameras, power analyzers?

    Thanks!

  • Hank Mills

    Dear Andrea,

    There are a few questions I need to ask that I hope you can answer. I’ll try to keep them on-topic to the patents and applications that have been published. Please realize that there are issues debated and discussed for extended periods of time on forums that you can clarify in an instant. A single sentence answer can do more than you ever will know for the growing group of replicators out there.

    1 – From previous tests of pre-Lugano early hot cats that used elemental lithium in addition to LiAlH4, it seems like they started producing excess heat at lower temperatures (300C instead of 700-800C). Although this seems obvious due to all the information that has been released, can you confirm that when elemental lithium is used the operating temp when excess heat appears is lowered?

    2 – Using the starting ratio in the patent, one can assume if the core is sealed well and there is very little free volume the pressure will be very high. Can you please tell us if such high pressures will reduce or eliminate excess heat, or if they are not a problem at all. Can you provide a starting pressure range to go with the starting fuel ratio? This is another super simple issue that could be clarified with a few words.

    3 – Will an elemental lithium pellet melted in a reactor work as well as a source of lithium as lithium powder? Basically, will any source of pure lithium work as long as it melts?

    You do not know how much answers to these basic questions would help the growing number of replicators who are striving to prove the Rossi Effect. I realize nothing will be more convincing than products on the shelf, but I’m personally SICK of all the negativity, libel, and cynicism coming from some parties. Forgive me for being blunt, but after being harassed, legally threatened, and verbally attacked, I’m eager to see the world accept the Rossi Effect as a technology every bit as real as the photovoltaic effect.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I am much concerned and very confused on the reported operation of the eCat above the melting point of nickel. Much of the LENR theory deals with the effect of a material structure (e.g. Nuclear Active Environments – ref Storms) which goes away if the materials are all in a molten or gaseous state. Can you address this concern?

    a. In the reported high temperature eCat operation, are all the active components (fuel and catalyst) in a molten or gaseous state?
    b. Is another type of catalyst or structure present, such as the enclosure(s), that provides the NAE?
    c. Any other concepts or explanations that you can share regarding this issue?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Kenko1:
    More than licensing, we are now focused on manufacturing, which will be the next step ( F9). The 64 patents I am working upon are part of a complex IP protection that anyway will not affect the manufacturing scheduling, also because we will reach a so high level of economy scale that our competitors will not have any opportunity to make reverse engineering, also considering that the US patent allowed does not leave much room under the process and apparatus point of view. We can proceed independently from the patents that are pending and the patents that will be applied for for the time being. Again, provided the results of the R&D and tests on course will reach positive results: our disclaimer related to the fact that the final results could be negative is still valid.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • kenko1

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Due to the sometimes lengthy nature of the patenting process, are you willing to license/manufacture some of the e-cat discoveries and label them as ‘patent pending’ ?

    TIA,
    kenko1

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    Please find on
    http://www.rossilivecat.com
    comments of this blog published today on other posts than this one.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Lisa Huckerbee:
    Because I realized I was just copying the work of Professors much better than me in theoretical issues. I understood that for me is better to study than to write.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alonzo Pope:
    Thank you for the interesting link.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alonzo Pope

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I have seen the beautiful comment of Brian Josephson on the Nature Web but I was disturbed by the unprofessional and violent comments from your competitors. I have taken the freedom to add a small contribution of me to that page.

    http://www.nature.com/news/the-week-in-science-21-27-august-2015-1.18224

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