United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

 

uspto_seal_big

 

Sigillo

 

Alloro del brevetto

.

Read the whole US Patent
Download the ZIP file of US Patent

 

26,083 comments to United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gerard McEk:
    1 no
    2 yes
    3 The Ecat will decide all this
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Sam:
    I liked Kobe Bryant. He grew up in Italy and as a kid he already was a champion and very good at school too.
    Thank you for your wishes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    1 no
    2 no
    3 yes
    4 excellent
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Lotr Mileikowsky:
    A yes
    B confidential
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Lotr Mileikowsky

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    I only have two queries:

    A) After all those cca 12 years of research, have You found out whether any element or substance disappears from the reactor or is consummed (reactor in the technical sense, i.e. the material vessel inside which the reactions occur)?

    B) If Yes, is it hydrogen or another element?

    Best Regards

    Mileikowsky

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    20 persons working together on the experiments with you is a substantial team.

    1) Are you all in the same location?
    2) Are all working full time?
    3) Do you have all the financial and equipment resources you need?
    4) How do you characterize the progress of the team?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Sam

    Hello DR Rossi

    I hope you win the SKL Super
    Bowl in honour of Kobe Bryant.

    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-people-kobe-bryant-italy-idUSKBN1ZQ1QM

    Regards
    Sam

  • Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,
    Just a question about how you have organized the introduction of the E-Cat SK and the SK Leonardo on the market:
    1. You are the only one that decides what to put on the market and when, you industrial partner has no vote.
    2. You and your industrial partner have equal voting in this.
    3. Your industrial partner decides what and when the E-Cats are put on the market.
    Thanks, kind regards, Gerard

  • Koen Vandewalle

    @PlasmaFan, Aleksei Savchenko, and friends,

    From meditation and a lot of information that was shared here, and which I am all trying to understand, I came across an article describing that X-rays can be converted into electricity with solid-state materials with an efficiency of 70 to 75%.
    https://actu.epfl.ch/news/a-novel-material-turns-space-radiation-into-electr/

    Unfortunately or fortunately, X-rays are a few orders of magnitude less energetic than the production of Gamma’s previously reported by Andrea Rossi.

    So by changing a parameter or a reagent somewhere on the reaction, it could well be that E-Cat SKL works on that concept.

    Since X-rays deal with irradiated materials in a rather destructive way, it also seems plausible that a search must be made for stable construction materials for the reactors.
    Hence my suggestion to contact specialists in this field: https://www.xfel.eu

    I therefore expect a “no comment” response from Andrea Rossi, but in the meantime it helps me not to have to think about Carnot-like machines anymore. So more time for meditation, reflection and wonder for the beautiful system of the universe.

    Very kind regards,

    Koen

  • Paul

    Andrea,

    Some questions about the relativistic rotating electron model:

    1- If variations in a gravity field move at the speed of light, the rotating electron’s gravity well will arrive on the opposite side of its rotation before it does (diameter vs 1/2 circumference). Is it possible for the gravitational force (as a function of rotational Radius) to be large enough to maintain the rotation?

    2- When an electron is accelerated linearly to relativistic speeds, does the axis of rotation of the electron automatically align with the direction of propagation?
    Would this limit the maximum linear velocity, since it is not possibly to simultaneously travel at the speed of light in two orthogonal directions?

    3- If the axis of rotation is allowed to be orthogonal to the direction of propagation, the combined trajectory would be equivalent to a spot on a rotating tire on a moving car. as observed by a stationary observer. Since the velocity in the direction of propagation oscillates the electron would not be able to reach a linear speed of light.

    With respect,

    Paul

  • Aleksei Savchenko

    Dear Andrea,
    There is one thing that troubles me for a long time. and which I should know as a person whose basic specialization is metal science and who has been engaged all his life in developing various novel materials (metal hydrides included). But I still don’t understand one point that causes the inferiority complex in me.
    All ECat previous versions, operating at 1000-1300 degrees Celsius comprise hydrogen in a form of LiAlH4, which at a less temperatures melts down, hydrogen becomes gaseous and emitted from it, lithium evaporated, Al interacts with excess if Ni forming NiAl3. What happens to hydrogen gas in this case? Will it stay in a fuel or leave Ecat?
    It is known that already at 500 degrees Celsius hydrogen passes through any steel tube and only oxides can slow down this process. But micro-cracks in ceramic tubes and and poorly sealed pipe ends cannot prevent the escape of hydrogen from the system.
    The only chance for hydrogen is to be absorbed by Ni powder on its surface and inside micro-defects, but it is unlikely that he will be able to stay there at these temperatures.
    The other possibility exists for its accumulation in Ni powder microstructure – on dislocation loops that can be created artificially. But it requires evidence.
    By the way, I forgot about third component in the fuel, which refers to your “Know-How”. May be its main goal is hydrogen accumulation? But it is not the fact as it is very complicated problem.
    Best wishes to you and to your team.
    Bonne chance!
    Aleksei

  • Andrea Rossi

    Rick57:
    We are working only on the Eact SK Leonardo, in all aspects of its technology, to make it presentable.
    For obviouws reasons, I cannot talk about the particulars.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    About 20 persons,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gunter Mayr:
    Thank you for your empathy. I edited your comment not to publish your privacy connected issues.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gunter Mayr

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I wish success for your invention I deem to be the most important after the discovery of fire,
    Gunter Mayr

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    How many people are working with you in the lab for the E-Cat SKL experiments these days?

    Best wishes,

    Frank Acland

  • Rick57

    Dear Andrea,

    can you give us an update about activities and progresses made in the last two months ?

    We are all anxious to attend the presentation of your masterpiece !

    Thanks a lot,

    Riccardo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Sam:
    My Super Bowl is the SK Leonardo. I do not have other interests in this period.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Christian Scholl:
    Makes sense,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Christian Scholl

    Dear Andrea,
    I suppose you are planning these different production lines:
    1 Ecat SK to heat water
    2 Ecat SK to heat air
    3 Ecat SK to make DC
    4 Ecat SK to make AC
    Sincerely,
    Christian

  • Sam

    Hello DR Rossi

    Are you taking any Super
    Bowl Events?

    https://www.miamiscapes.com/miami-super-bowl.html

    Regards
    Sam

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alessandro Coppi:
    Thank you for your opinion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    KeithT:
    Thank you for the information and the suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    PlasmaFan:
    1 studying a paper 2 years ago
    2 no
    3 fractions of second
    4 no
    5 confidential
    6 confidential
    7 no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Karlo Foskolo:
    Thank you for your opinion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Aleksei Savchenko:
    I am limited by confidentiality issues. About the term “bsllerina”: it is my fault, I coined it…
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Rod Walton:
    Thank you for the update,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Rod Walton

    On the issue of January 28 2020 of Power Engineering:
    “Illuminating the path to successful solar construction”
    Ros Walton

  • Aleksei Savchenko

    @ to, PlasmaFan, Tom Frazer, KeithT, Italo R, as well as Andrea Rossi etc
    Dear colleagues,
    I have been waiting for the moment when scientific discussion will move to the main issue – how electricity is generated in the ECat SKL. And since this question was finally raised, I would also like to comment on a few points.
    Practically all systems producing electricity use so-called the Carnot cycle – heat is transformed into mechanical work and then to electricity. Except some exotic types like low efficiency thermoelectric converters.
    It is also known that any action sooner or later transforms into heat release.
    Many proposals appeared on the JONP forum concerning how to optimize heat to electricity cycle but unfortunately they are all far from reality.
    Any noticed in the comments proposed optimal structures such as “organizing plasma phenomena of electrons around a positive core” or others have a minor possibility to produce electricity as all these structures are in equilibrium state. For example, standard atomic structure with separated negative charged electrons rotating around positive charged protons, etc, cannot produce electricity. If something in the matter structure due to some energy impact (needs external energy) becomes separated and able to produce electricity it is immediately find more stable state with release of heat or electromagnetic radiation and we do not have time to catch the right moment for electricity. Our proposal to the system to produce electricity should be much preferable (benefit) to it (not so simple as to put electrodes). And you don’t have to offer money to it since it exists in other ways.
    A few months ago I asked Andrea: “that in one model the LENR excess heat happens at the account of the chaotic pulse movement of electrons. Then just by applying a magnetic field to it, you can order the movement of electrons and get a current.” And his answer was very similar to Yes. But I am not sure that he said what he want to say. If it is not too confidential, can Andrea will not tell the truth, but will only speculate on this subject.
    Best regards,
    Aleksei
    P.S. To everybody. Please, do not use the term ballerina in the future, if possible. This is from another area.
    I also cannot agree with PlasmaFan that “getting tremendous excess heat is pretty easy”. I think he meant that transformation from heat to electricity is also a complicated task

  • Karlo Foskolo

    Andrea,

    have you ever thought of turning your eCat into an “open source project” as your “gift” to humanity?

    With the worldwide collaboration of the technological companies of the sector this would greatly shorten the development time of the system and would contribute to solve a huge part of mankind’s problems.

    You would go down in history as one of its most famous characters and in the end you would have more money than you can spend.

    You would probably be the first to get the Nobel Prize for physics and the Nobel Peace Prize at the same time.

    And probabily you would sleep better 😉

    Greetings

    Karlo Foskolo

  • PlasmaFan

    Dear Andrea,

    1) When did you first make the mental connection between ball lightning (or any kind of self organizing plasma phenomena) and your E-Cat technology?

    2) The literature states that these plasma balls with an exterior membrane of electrons around a positive core can act as resonance chambers and “feed” off electromagnetic radiation. Is this the reason that in your previous powder based systems alternating current (especially with higher frequency harmonics) was used due to the fact AC would have radiated RF that would have been absorbed by the plasma balls, allowing them to grow larger and induce LENR reactions?

    3) In the E-Cat QX and SK, after cutting off all input power from a power supply, what was the life span of the plasma ball or “ballerina” before it dissipated?

    4) Was the lifespan of the plasma ball extended due to LENR reactions (or any other type) that produced heat which would have sustained it without the need for external electrical input?

    5) Does the E-Cat QX, SK, or SKL produce a plasma ball in the steady state mode (in which the double layers remain intact) or the next phase of self-organization (the pulsating mode) in which double layers or “sheathes” are thrown off and replaced repeatedly?

    6) Have you ever had a plasma ball from any of these systems, for example during high powered “torture” testing, escape the reactor body itself and enter the outer environment of the laboratory?

    7) So far in the testing of the E-Cat SKL, have you found any wear and tear, erosion, or damage on the electrodes?

    Thank you so much for any answers you can provide.

  • KeithT

    Dear Andrea,

    The UK Company Reaction Engines Limited is developing an air-breathing rocket engine named Sabre for single stage to orbit craft. As a part of this engine they have patented, developed, built and validated (Oct 2019) an extremely efficient light weight pre-cooler heat exchanger that consists of thousands of meters of small bore thin wall tube, this pre-cooler heat exchanger is capable of cooling incoming Mach 5 speed air from over 1000 deg C to -150 deg C in less than 1/20th of a second.

    The technology of the pre-cooler heat exchanger may possibly be suitable for alternative development, used in reverse as part of a heater within an air or gas blower, the heat exchanger internal to the blower with single or multiple pumped fluid circuits and multiple E-Cat heaters externally close by. Thermal heat transfer fluids like Dowtherm A can be used up to 400 deg C.

    An economic hot air blower will find opportunities across many industries and if small can be used for vehicle or domestic heating.

    large units can be used in heating and ventilation systems (HVAC) for shops, warehouses, offices, factories or leisure venues, industrial ovens and processes, bakery ovens (150 to 300 deg C), farm grain dryers, heated farm buildings for livestock or poultry, greenhouses, or in farm fields blowing along the interior of a polytunnel, (heavily used in the UK due to our weather, could use tens of thousands of heaters to extend the growing season).

    Low cost heating for agriculture may have a major impact on food costs, variety grown, year-round food availability and where you can locate farms – indoor farming in Scandinavian countries, northern Canada, Alaska or Siberia. There are many areas of the world with farms that have the benefit of a warm climate and all year sunshine, and vast northern areas that do not.

    Regards,

    Keith Thomson.

  • Alessandro Coppi

    Hi Andrea, with regard to the work to obtain reliability before the public presentation of the e-cat Leonardo, I believe that it will be time to obtain such feature. The simple demonstration of the principle will bring the world to another and higher level of technology.
    Remember that Volta did not wait for reliability, before show its experiments with frogs.
    Time will not lack to obtain a reliable product in the future.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    No.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Regarding the problems you are dealing with, is it possible you were mistaken in thinking that the SKL could operate in permanent self-sustain over a period of days?

    Best wishes with your troubleshooting,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Xavier Pitz:
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    Thank you for the suggestion, I agree.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    If the current implementation of the SKL is not “rock-solid” in its reliability and performance, then I suggest you postpone the public demonstration. I would wait until at least one month of reliable, every time, performance occurs. At that time, I would then suggest you make the announce of the public demonstration for a couple of months later. Also at that time, I would release the SKL to your independent evaluator. You would, of course, continue with minor refinements.

    This is way too important to have a bad first impression.

  • Xavier Pitz

    Dear Andrea,

    I know that you previously said that you don’t think that your effect has something to do with the _not_yet_confirmed_ particle X17.

    But I noticed the interest from Lajos Kelemen (Ikelemen), and I just watched and really appreciated the following video about it that has been released by Brady Haram on YouTube channel Sixty Symbols :
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8k6dKfmOufI

    I just wanted to share it with you and the other readers who may be interested in learning more about the subject.

    I can’t wait for the next demo (may it be in march or later).
    Keep up the excellent work !

    Best Regards,

    Xavier Pitz

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gerard McEk:
    We are working on it and still resolving problems. The time runs too fast, but I am still optimistic. If it will not be February, it should be March, but we are close.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gerard McEk

    Dear Andrea,
    January is coming to an end soon. Are you stil optimistic that the presentation in February will go on?
    All the success with the ECat SKL testing!
    Kind regards, Gerard

  • Andrea Rossi

    Roberto Ridolfi:
    Yes, it is unbelievable also to me. Probably it is due to the experimental coherence shown in
    http://www.ecatskdemo.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    PlasmaFan:
    Thank you for your insight.
    All the information I can give is published on
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Roberto Ridolfi

    Dear Dr Rossi:
    Today, reading your hit
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    I watched also the links to the stunning stats of your publications on Researchgate:
    43160 full readings
    1833 recommendations
    584.8 total research interest
    15 citations
    I have been stunned also tracing the readers and the recommendations, most of them being very high level professors and researchers in scientific fields and active in all the continents.
    Ad majora!
    Roberto

  • PlasmaFan

    Italo R.

    I think that if the ballerina or plasma ball has multiple striations or sheathes (double layers) of positive ions and electrons, then it would be possible to put electrodes into two points. However, I suspect that in a high powered system where everything has been tuned to achieve the greatest level of self organization, there’s a very good chance of such electrodes vaporizing. Instead, I think that what’s more likely to work is to optimize the setup so that the plasma ball produces ion acoustic oscillations that travel through the circuit. These types of plasma balls almost literally breath (inhale and exhale) electrons and ions from the plasma. The definition of electrical current is moving charged particles, so the plasma ball is actually producing electrical current with every breath. If the plasma ball is basically self sustaining itself due to producing heat from LENR reactions which is being transformed into electrical energy, these currents should be able to be tapped into. I think one issue is that the output isn’t going to be clean, straight DC. It’s going to be “dirty” and will need to be cleaned up to be re-used to close loop the system.

    I think the whole key here is to treat the plasma ball like an animal that can already perform everything you want it to. Instead of artificially inserting electrodes, you should adjust the environment, fuel composition, electrode distance, atmospheric pressure, electrode shape, any external magnetic fields applied, and so forth to get the animal to produce the kind of output you want.

    This is both very simple and complex at the same time. I think getting tremendous excess heat is pretty easy. However, taming the beast is probably as difficult as teaching a lion to play fetch.

    Dear Andrea,

    The literature cites that once established via one of many means, these plasma balls act like resonance cavities because of the external spherical membrane of electrons that constitutes one side of the double layer. Papers say that they can be fed with not only the heat of the reactor but also RF or microwave energy. Are you using any such method to feed the ballerina?

  • Andrea Rossi

    KeithT:
    I appreciate your empathic comment,
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • KeithT

    Dear Andrea,

    I think the possibility is high that the E-Cat SKL is going through a process of optimisation.

    The current development is likely targeted to obtain then verify the best ratio of electricity to heat possible from the E-Cat SKL, to not just establish existing operational boundaries but to push boundaries as far as practicable in the time span available. What innovation can be applied to push the boundary, what works, what does not, it’s a team effort.

    As the E-Cat SKL charge contains a plasma zone, there will always be some element of heat, so a cold SKL is not possible. There may be attempts to minimise the plasma operating temperature, and probably adjust the stimulation signal for energy production rate, but at some point there will be a structural lower phase transition, below this it will not start, the process inside the plasma at a large scale will appear constant but at a very small scale the timing of the energy production events may be random and in bursts, the control process requires active feedback, hence the advantage of an AI program trained to self-correct from deviations in output, even with AI, in attempting to reduce the heat output at some point a large deviation drop out will occur with shut down then automatic restart.

    To target the optimal parameters that will produce the best electricity to heat ratio that can be tested as robust and reliant is a full research and development project, but in the case of the SKL may be limited to a period of weeks. It is likely that a good working version of the E-Cat SKL is ready, but can a better version be developed within the timespan before a third-party test then presentation.

    An exciting time of discoveries but stressful to you and the people around you, this period may be regarded as the quiet before the storm, best wishes to you and your team.

    Regards,

    Keith Thomson.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    I wish it was so simple !
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Lotr Mileikowsky

    Dear WaltC,

    You here asked about elements in “reactor”.

    We, technicians under term “reactor” understand a hardware – some vessel inside which are running reactions.

    Here Dr. Rossi probably under term “reactor” understand something different: a plasma or dense cloud of electrons itself.

    So answers to your queries have something different means.

    Please next time ask about “elements/isotopes inside wider vessel”.

  • Italo R.

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    Are there areas in the ballerina with different electrical potentials?

    If so, it should be possible to draw electricity by simply placing two electrodes in appropriate points.

    Sincerely

    Italo R.

Leave a Reply

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>