United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

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40,876 comments to United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You and your staff will likely chose another approach but this is my thinking on how to merge NGU technology into a PV solar park.

    If the solar panels are tied in a string and go to a string inverter, then the approach would be to use two diodes (a 60VDC, 30Amp, 0.7 VDC forward drop, < 1 milliamp reverse current, cost is less than $3USD each) and let the highest voltage leave the PV panel going to the string inverter. Typical PV voltages in STC are around 40 VDC and power is around 400-500W. Not the most efficient but simple and reliable.

    If the solar panels each go to a micro-inverter, then replace the micro-inverter with a dual input micro-inverter. The PV solar panel output goes into one input. The NGU goes into the other input. This gives maximum efficiency.

    Number of 100W NGUs – I suggest 3, outputting a total of 36VDC. This keeps the total power down, which increases component reliability, provides less power at night, when the demand is less.

    Thoughts?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    We will start the massive manufacturing only after reaching the well known target of consolidated pre-orders. We are making prototypes for testing and now we have a series of prototypes that work with the necessary reliability; therefore we are ready to start anytime a massive manufacturing for at least 500000 units per year, besides we have already organized an outsourcing system to further increase the production.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    1. How many of the current NGU 100W units have you been able to successfully produce?
    2. Of those produced, how many have undergone testing?
    3. Can you ascertain a yield rate (number of units that passed testing divided by number of units produced)?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the information contained in your last two comments,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Kuwait Solar Project – a non-government project

    “A group of energy companies are planning to build a 5-GW solar power complex in the north of Kuwait that will involve an investment of about USD 3.5 billion (EUR 3.1bn), Kuwaiti daily Al Anba said on Tuesday, citing sources familiar with the matter.

    The initiative has been submitted to the Cabinet Office and then referred to Kuwait’s minister of finance for a review, the report says. The developers are seeking state approval to build the park as a private investment project and then sell the produced electricity to the Ministry of Electricity, Water and Renewable Energy.”

    Thoughts?

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A Saudi Arabia Application for NGU Technology

    “ACWA Power, a local utilities company, signed an agreement with Water and Electricity Holding Company (Badeel) to build the world’s largest single-site solar-power plant in Al Shuaibah, Mecca province. The solar-power facility is expected to start operations by end‑2025, with a generation capacity of 2,060 MW.”

    “Saudi Arabia seeks to add 15 GW of renewable energy capacity.”

    Suggestions:

    1. Divide the 2 GW of solar into two identical 1 GW solar farms.
    2. One equipped with NGU technology, and the other not so equipped.
    3. Monitor the output of each for some period of time, say, one year,
    4. Cost reimbursement could either be upfront or paid by the additional energy produced.

    To implement, you would need to develop a field installable kit, that rapidly facilitated integration with the existing solar panel and cabling. You might also want to set up a local network for monitoring and status reporting.

    If so implemented, that would give you 1 GW of NGU units in total.

    Thoughts?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another NGU Application – H71M-PM Hall-effect thruster

    NASA has developed an ion thruster that requires 1 kW (or less) for 15,000 hours (or more). It has a high Specific Impulse of around 1,800 sec. A perfect application for the NGU.

  • Martyn Aubrey

    Steven Nicholes Karels

    Hello Steven,

    I agree with your vision.

    Also, it is always wise to keep enough reserve power to make a good cup of coffee!

    Best regards,
    Martyn

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    Sorry, the issues you raised are confidential, apart what has been written in the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    WaltC:
    Thank you foryour suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “I already answered to this issue.” I believe this was in regards to my discussion of a Current Limiting Circuit.

    I agree that the NGU unit should just shut down when a demand greater than its maximum power rating is required. It makes no sense for the NGU unit to have additional circuitry or logic to accommodate demand beyond its specified performance. Such considerations should be made by the system integrator who is using the NGU units.

    This is identical to a power supply which has an over-current level, that when exceeded, it automatically shuts down the operation of the power supply. When the load is removed, the power supply will reactivate, either with a manual reset or automatically.

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Martyn Aubrey,

    My vision for the NGU units is that they feed a smart inverter, similar to an all-in-one solar inverter, where the solar inputs are replaced with NGU units. In this environment, the NGU units would run at their maximum level, but no more. Any excess energy would be stored in included batteries which would handle turn on transient loads.

    If the requested demand was greater than what the overall system could supply, then gid power would supplement the battery and NGU power.

    As with all electrical systems, circuit breakers would protect the conductors from excessive current flow.

    So, in a building or industrial setting, some protection equipment will be needed to handle electrical demands greater than what the system is designed to handle. Similar to the circuit breaker opening when you plug in that last additional coffee pot.

  • WaltC

    Dr. Rossi,

    A simple candidate for killer-application that has, so far, received limited attention would be an “E-Cat Portable Power Station”. Based on the Portable Power Stations available on Amazon, the E-Cat would have a natural superiority in that application and it should also be a good match, price-wise.

    About “Portable Power Station” (PPS) devices:
    – These are simple devices: {rechargeable batteries + inverter + power outputs} in a compact, portable package.
    – Intended primarily for Indoor/Outdoor, Camping, Emergency, Home (e.g., blackouts) and Portable Use.
    – Most PPS provide 110v AC and USB (DC) power outputs.
    – Recharge power can come from Home (AC), Car (12v) or Solar Panel(s).
    – Runtimes are typically 1 hour at the rated capacity.

    Take as an example a top-selling 300W Portable Power Station with over 8200 ratings (on AZ):
    – It costs $229 (currently) and can sustain 62W output for 4 hours. (Which equals $3.60 per 4h-sustained-W).
    – Depending on the situation, 4 hours may be vastly insufficient, but recharging is required, nonetheless.
    – A 100W E-Cat PPS could be comparably priced, with comparable output, and provide vastly superior runtime.

    Summary: A family of “E-Cat Portable Power Station” devices– 100W … 1000W– would allow stepwise access into a new market, provide customers with a low-cost entry point and offer unmatched runtimes. The unique and superior runtime could likely support a higher price-premium if required initially.

    Best Wishes,
    WaltC

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    You recently published a photo of the current peaks that occur in the core of the E-Cat NGU. We see a relatively even distribution of the current peaks that remain quite stable in terms of amplitude within a certain range.
    In the trend of recent interesting questions from readers, I was wondering how the E-Cat NGU adapts to a variable load? Does the amplitude of the current peaks decrease, or does the number of peaks per unit time decrease by lengthening the intervals?
    In the hypothetical case of an extension of the intervals, does it seem likely to me that the life of the reactor core would increase proportionately?

    Kind regards,
    Koen

  • Martyn Aubrey

    Hello Steven,

    My concern about overloading the Ecat supply was not so much about individual installations, where I agree with Andrea that there would be good oversight over the total wattage of the individual devices taking power from each Ecat.

    I was thinking more about a situation where a multi-Ecat configuration supplies multiple consumers in, for example, a large building or an off-grid complex.

    Any consumer may add an extra device to their power outlets and not realise how close they could bring the higher level system to its switch-off point. This careless addition of say a kettle or a heater might trip the Ecat supply and cause a power blackout for the other users.

    As you said, a current limiting circuit breaker for each individual spur would be a good solution.

    However, it is unlikely that any of the equally rated spurs would be used at full capacity all of the time, so there would need to be a considerable reserve margin of power to meet the full usage if occasionally required.

    This would be a general power distribution matter rather than an Ecat power output matter, to avoid supply contention.

    Interesting regards,
    Martyn

  • Andrea Rossi

    R.Brand:
    Requests of license must be addressed to
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    I already answered to this issue,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • R.Brand

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    have i read it correctly that you will licence the ecat also to other producers?
    How much will be the license fee per 100 Watt ecat?
    Best regards
    R.Brand

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Martyn Aubrey,

    One possible solution is to design and place a Current Limiting Circuit between the NGU unit(s) and the load. The Current limiting Circuit will limit the current being drawn from the NGU unit(s) so the NGU unit(s) do not shutdown. The output of the Current Limiting Circuit will reduce the voltage going to the load.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Martyn Aubrey:
    With the Ecat will happen exactly the same thing that would happen if you exceed the power installed in your house by your energy provider, for example connecting too many appliances at the same time; suppose you have a contract to supply a maximum power of 5 kW: this means that you can connect loads that totalize a consume of max 5 kWh/h, e.g. one 2 kW heater, one 2 kW refrigerator and additional series of appliances for a total of 1 kW of power, this way consuming a total of 5 kWh/h of energy: that’s fine so far…but if you add to the connections any further appliance, the general switch of your house will shut down all; analogically, the same would happen with the Ecat system. To fix the issue, as you surely already know, all you have to do is to disconnect some appliance to reduce the consume within the limit of 5 kWh/h, and the light will be back again. I am sure that you already experienced this solace,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I reviewed a projection that the State of Texas will need to double its baseload capacity, currently around 150 GW, within the next ten years to meet:

    1. Population growth
    2. environmental change (Texas is getting warmer)
    3. Increase in industry.

    Perhaps you should adjust your business model to include electricity production?

    Thoughts?

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another eCat application – large electric cranes

    “The world’s largest land-based electric crane is here to make construction even cleaner, and the technology could revolutionize offshore wind installations.

    As detailed by Interesting Engineering, the SK6,000 ring crane was delivered to Mammoet’s engineering hub in the Netherlands in April 2023.”

    While the crane is currently powered from the “dirty” electrical grid, it could be powered by eCat technology. This would make its operation free from electrical grid outages.

    It is also likely that seaborne cranes could use eCat technology.

    Thoughts?

  • Martyn Aubrey

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    You answered to Steve D that the Ecat shuts down when V*I exceeds the power rating.
    Will there be a warning indication when the output power approaches the cut-off threshold?
    Many thanks for your answer.

    Kind regards,
    Martyn Aubrey

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steve D:
    The Ecat system has a constant Voltage that depends on the assembly and the specific situation; R and I depend on the integrals deriving from the first Ohm’s Law:
    R = V/I
    Obviously V*I cannot exceed the power: if it does, the Ecat shuts down.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tom Kaminski

    Steven Nicholes Karels:

    A DC to DC converter wold be fine — you just need to verify that the eCat-NGU is generating significant power with no input. The eCat-NGU could also be placed in a shielded box to eliminate any electromagnetic coupling from a hidden source.

  • Steve D

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    2024-04-30 Steven Nicholes Karels asks,

    2. Is there a minimum load required for the voltage to be presented? If so, what is that load? 

    You response, No.

    I read minimum load to mean minimum current, therefore it refers to a load resistance value that cannot be exceeded. The readers question suggests a threshold. The distinction between open circuit and just sufficient current to maintain eg 12 V output. To rephrase the question:

    1) Is there a maximum load resistance where the ecat will still output a voltage? 

    2)  If so, what is that load resistance, or more generally what is the minimum current?

    3) When idle for storage, is the ecat in an “off” condition?

    4) Is there eg 12V or 0V output when it is “off”?

    5) If Q4 answer is 0V, the ecat is seen to have shut down at some maximum resistance or minimum current threshold. The user will need to know this threshold for application design.

    Thank You 

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Tom Kaminski,

    I have been watching this technology for a long time. Historically, AR has been reluctant to have direct measurements of the output of the eCat technology devices.

    My suggested change to your request to AR is to place a DC/DC converter in line so that the measurement equipment measures the output of the DC/DC converter. Maybe a 12VDC to 24VDC output with a load of 6 Ohms rated to handle more than 100W? Measure the average voltage at the load and the average current. Perhaps use analog meters?

    Thoughts?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tom Kaminski:
    Thank you for your opinion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tom Kaminski

    You have stated that you will not restart the live demonstration of the eCat-NGU, but I hope that you would reconsider that decision. I would feel more comfortable telling others about your invention if I saw a demonstration that had clear measurements with common equipment. A demonstration that had an eCat-NGU, with output terminals connected to a mechanical panel meter measuring voltage, connected to a resistive load through a mechanical panel meter measuring current, and a two or more mechanical (or mercury/alcohol glass) thermometers measuring the temperature of the load and room temperature would work. If you demonstrated the 100 Watt eCat-NGU, the temperature rise would be very apparent, demonstrating power flow to the load independent of the voltage times current electrical power measurement.

    Everything associated with the measurements could be certified by experts beforehand. It could be connected to the eCat-NGU at your site. Though there will still be skeptics claiming the demonstration is fake, it would make many of us who have been following the eCat technology evolution more comfortable.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1- yes
    2- no
    3- the Ecat shuts down
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gavino Mamia:
    You are right,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A few questions on the NGU 100W module.

    1. Does the NGU 100W module present its voltage (e.g. 12 VDC) all the time, excluding times when an over current condition is occurring?
    2. Is there a minimum load required for the voltage to be presented? If so, what is that load?
    3. What happens as the load causes the NGU 100W unit to approach, meet, and then exceed the maximum current draw? Does the output voltage decrease after the point of maximum current draw?

    I am trying to understand how the NGU 100W module (in series with other identical units) will respond when MPPT occurs in a solar inverter where the PV input is replaced by a series connections of NGU 100W units.

  • Gavino Mamia

    Doctor Rossi
    Many affordable Chinese electric vehicle models are expected to arrive in Europe soon.
    The Italian state has provided incentives for the purchase of electric vehicles.
    Please speed up the test to prevent many from making a wrong purchase.
    Good work

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another application for NGU technology

    Oxygen production for use at hospitals.

    “Medical oxygen is a regulated commodity that must be at least 82% pure, free from any contamination, and generated by an oil-free compressor. Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It changes from gas to liquid at a temperature of −182.96°C. The liquid oxygen can be solidified or frozen at a temperature of −218°C.”

    4 MJ of energy is needed to produce 1 kg of liquid oxygen.

    1 kg of liquid oxygen will generate 720 liters of medical oxygen.

    Assume a hospital with 1,000 beds, each requiring 5 liters per minute of medical oxygen = 5,000 liter per minute.

    energy needed per minute = 4 MJ * 5,000 liters per minute * 1kg/720 liters = ~ 28 MJ / minute

    power needed = 28 MJ /60 sec = ~ 0.5 MW.

    The hospital would not need to rely on external transportation of liquid oxygen which might fail when storms are present.

    Thoughts?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Roland:
    Thank you for your kind attention to the work of our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Roland

    Dr Rossi,
    the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    has received 1380 reccomendations as of today, mostly from physicists and researchers of the matter: this is a strong peer reviewing support, even more impressive considering its revolutionary context.
    Best Regards,
    Roland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Iggy Dalrymple:
    Depends on the specific situations,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Iggy Dalrymple

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    Does your NGU water heater require an inverter
    Best Regards,
    Iggy

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    You are right: in the comment of Sergio there was a typo, writing SKLep instead of SKL, and in my answer I erroneously repeated his typo: my mistake. After this comment of yours I corrected both the typos,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Quinto:
    Thank you for the links,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You posted “The Ecat SKLep was only a heat generator, while the Ecat SKLep NGU generates electricity and, consequently, also heat, albeit the theoretical operational bases are the same.”

    If my memory serves me correctly, the Ecat SKLep was an electricity producer (the last two letters of SKLep). Some undefined problems occurred with the SKLep design and you went to the NGU (“Never Give Up”) version. The SKLep was originally designed to go into the EV demonstration.

    As I recall, the NGU had some additional components added to improve reliability.

    Am I mistaken?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Thank you for the update,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jan Srajer:
    As soon as we will decide the date,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jan Šrajer

    Mr.Rossi
    How far in advance will you announce the EV test?

    All the best J.Š.

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