United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

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40,785 comments to United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    To All,

    Let’s compare PV Solar Panels to SKLep NGU technology units in terms of power, energy, and cost parameters.

    A quick look on Amazon shows a 450W output PV solar panel (in quantity) at a price of $268.50 USD per panel. The PV solar panel has dimensions of 44.7 inches by 72.5 inches.

    A 6-inch by 6-inch plate could easily contain 4each, 10 W SKLep NGU modules which would produce nominal 48 VDC (series connection) with 40 W of output power. Each SKLep NGU is assumed to cost $25 USD.

    The PV solar panel produces energy only when the sun is visible and sufficiently high in the sky. Assume this can be modeled as 6 hours per day of maximum sunlight.

    The SKLep NGU produces 10W of electrical power per module 24 hours per day.

    Power per square inch:
    PV solar panel: 0.139 W per inch squared.
    SKLep NGU: 1.11 W per inch squared.

    Energy per 24-hour day per inch squared:
    PV solar panel: 0.834 W-hours per inch squared.
    SKLep NGU: 26.64 W-hrs per inch squared.

    Power per USD:
    PV solar panel: 1.7W per USD.
    SKLep NGU: 0.4W per USD.

    Daily Energy per USD:
    PV solar panel: about 10W-hrs per USD.
    SKLep NGU: about 10 W-hrs per USD.

    Comments:
    1. The SKLep NGU could be mounted on a smaller support area structure.
    2. The SKLep NGU does not require exposure to the sun.
    3. The SKLep NGU could be stacked vertically so higher volumetric densities may be obtained, compared to a PV solar panel.
    4. The SKLep NGU will not be affected by environmental effects such as clouds or snow coverings.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Sam,
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    When you restart the streaming with the lamp, will it be with the E-Cat NGU in SSM mode?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1. There is not a required role, the Ecat just multiplies its energy emission
    2. yes
    3. it depends on the situations
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ulrich Kranz:
    Thank you for your support.
    Answer: not yet,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    1. Can you clarify the required role the PV solar panel plays in the SKLep NGU scenario?
    2. I believe you answered a question that the SKLep NGU could be used without an input source (i.e., such as a PV solar panel). Is that correct?
    3. What other energy or power producing devices come to mind that could benefit from SKLep NGU technology?

  • Ulrich Kranz

    Dear Andrea,
    it’s a wonderful idea and a breakthrough to amplify the power of the existing solar power plants by a factor of ten!
    Even if you must install additional inverters.
    When we count the existing solar power plants on the globe that could be enhanced in such a way, we can give up a lot of fossil fuel plants.
    I wish you success in the coming EV demonstration.
    One question: Have you made progress in miniaturizing the e-cat 10 W?
    Warm regards
    Ulrich

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jan Srajer:
    Thank you for your kind attention to the work of our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jan Šrajer

    Mr.Rossi
    I am very pleased that your company Leonardo published on 6 November 2023 a statement on the status of the E-cat development. This increased confidence in the plasma generator. Personally, I think mastering the E-catSKLep serviceability is the most important. Automotive traffic is the most demanding application.

    All the Best J.Š.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    As I repeated many times, the difference is that the amount of energy produced with the application of the Ecat NGU is much more, therefore, obviously, it is possible to increase much more the capacity of the batteries, therefore in the same surface you increase by orders of magnitude the energy produced 24/7. Besides, I also repeat that the solar application does not exclude other applications,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Most domestic solar installations charge batteries to store energy when there is no sunshine.

    If the E-Cat NGU can generate electricity, could you just connect it directly to batteries and charge them (without the need for solar panels)?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    He,he,he…nice link !
    Answers:
    1- yes
    2- it improves substantially existing and already installed systems
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Regarding the E-Cat NGU.

    1) Does it operate in SSM (self-sustain mode)?
    2) If the E-Cat NGU is generating electricity, why does it need to combine with a solar system (which adds complexity and expense)?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

    PS. If you need some extra motivation, watch this: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxGRhd_iWuE

  • Andrea Rossi

    Maico:
    Thank you for your insight.
    Answers:
    1, 2- You are not asking too much
    3, 4- The Ecat gives energy to the grid, and still is SSMming
    5- you are not asking too much
    6- within Santa Claus we should restart the live streaming on Youtube and Twitch
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    >> 1
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels,
    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm regards,
    A.R.

  • Anonymous

    The sun irradiation is 100 Wm^-1
    Assuming by convention this as a COP 1, which would the COP with the application of the Ecat to a solar system, noting that the COP of a solar system is about 0.2 ?
    Thank you if you can answer

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    No matter what you call it, it will be a great development for solar and energy production.

    That said, there are some practical issues:

    1. Most PV Solar Panel applications are in the approximately 1m x 2m panel size and, under full sunlight, produce 300W to 400W of DC power. Therefore, the inverters will expect approximately 30VDC to 40VDC at about 10 Amperes as the maximum power coming from the PS Solar Panel.
    2. Microinverters are in that power and voltage range. String Inverters use a number of PV Solar Panels in series and can accept much higher voltages but the same regime of Amperes. I know the SKLep technology is limited in the output voltage when connected in series – roughly a limitation of 200VDC. String inverters can accept up to 500VDC or more.
    3. Your paper suggests an increase of about a factor of 6 in energy per hour over the daily energy from a PV Solar Panel.

    Therefore, I would expect the application of the combination of PV Solar Panels with SKLep NGU will be for physically small PV Solar Panels of the 50W to 100W variety. This would result in a total output of about 300W to 600W of electrical power. About 80% of the power would come from the SKLep NGU unit(s).

    I would suggest prototyping using the Enphase IQ7 or IQ8 microinverters. I have tested these with power supplies to simulate the SKLep SSM 100W modules and they work well at a nominal input of around 30VDC and a draw of around 12 Amperes.

  • Maico

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    It’s been a while since I asked questions about his blog.

    I cannot deny that “the postponement” due to “security problems” of the Ecat EV demo had cooled my enthusiasm a bit, I had been waiting for months for a public demonstration of your wonderful Creature, but unfortunately the security event that took place It is verified that this impressive demonstration was “postponed”.
    He has already confirmed on several occasions that it is only a postponement, and obviously this can only please us who have been following her for more than 11 years.

    I’m sure:

    1) has already identified the cause of the security event and that
    2) as soon as possible it will be definitively resolved

    Can you confirm if I’m not asking too much?

    Today, to my great joy with this press release:

    https://ecatthenewfire.com/update-from-leonardo-corporation-on-the-current-state-of-e-cat-development/

    You announced an upcoming demonstration that will see the use of SKlep NGUs in synergy with “a solar system”.

    3) Demonstrating without a shadow of a doubt, with data that will be visible to anyone (I imagine in streaming) that the energy production of the “solar system” as a whole can also take place at night when the solar panels of the system itself, for obvious reasons they will be unproductive !!!

    Can you confirm if I’m not asking too much?

    I can’t wait to know the date of the new demonstration!!!!

    If I can, I would like to try to go a little further, also trying to interpret what is reported in your statement.

    The Ecat-EV Demonstration I imagine uses/will use the SKLEP in SSM version.

    4) I imagine the ECAT NGU will be made to work in synergy with a “GRID” solar system and therefore interconnected to the grid. I therefore imagine that the Ecat NGU version that will be used in this new demo will be the “Grid-Tie” one

    5) or will the version of Ecat NGU that will be used always be in the SSM version?

    Can you confirm if I’m not asking too much?

    Thank you in advance for any clarifications you may/can provide.

    6) I sincerely hope that this year “Santa Claus” will be able to give us a “New and stimulating ECAT demonstration”!!!

    Is this a “dream” that you think could come true?

    Regards Maico

  • Andrea Rossi

    Nils Fryklund:
    We will remake also the EV test, but to make the difference in the solar field is the energy per sq.foot or sq. meter during 24 hours per day, also in the dark, which is based on numbers, not on opinions, intelligent or differently intelligent as those might be.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    I think amplification is a correct term, even if solar panels do not feed the Ecat, albeit you surely speak English better than me.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Cathy Johnson:
    Yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Maxwell:
    1- work in progress
    2- we always test prototypes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Nils Fryklund

    Dear Andrea!
    Are you going to do a new demo with an electric car or maybe a demo with less quantity of connected E-cats, for example electric moped?
    You then only need 0,5kW, 50 E-cats.
    Less risk that some will hassle.
    If the E-cat will demo together with sunpanels, people may think it is a fake.
    Best regards
    Nils Fryklund

  • Robert Maxwell

    HI,Dr Rossi
    Have you solved the problem with e-cat-ssm?
    Do you have prototypes that you are testing now?

    Blessing to you and your team.

  • Cathy Johnson

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    Q: Will the E-Cat NGU be able to produce electricity 24/365?

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In your open letter you posted:

    “The E-Cat SKLep NGU can be combined with solar panels in a synergistic relationship. E-Cat technology is able to act as an amplifier of electricity generated by solar panels. We believe that this amplification effect will make it possible to generate at least as much electricity in one hour as a solar panel can normally generate in one day.”

    But when asked about whether the SKLep NGU requires input from the solar panel, you posted No.

    Could you please clarify? The term amplification normally is taken to mean generating a gain from an input signal to an output signal that is greater or is amplified. For example: Y = A * X, where Y is the output, X is the input, and A is the Gain Factor.

    If there is no input power from the PV solar panel, and you still achieve a non-zero output, perhaps amplification is not the correct term?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    No, and I confirm what said in the link you forwarded here,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    I read the statement from ecatthenewfire.com today: https://ecatthenewfire.com/update-from-leonardo-corporation-on-the-current-state-of-e-cat-development/

    It mentions a synergy between the E-Cat NGU and solar panels. Does the E-Cat require energy produced by the solar panel to operate?

    Many thanks,

    Frank Acland

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Klas,

    I downloaded the Product Features datasheet for the APsystems QT2. I have some concerns:

    a. You approach envisions four groups of four 100W SKLap SSM units. Each group driving a single input of the four inputs on the QT2 microinverter. Tied in series, the four SKLep SSM 100W units will produce 48VDC which is well within the allowed input voltage range of 26V to 60V, although outside of the Peak Power Tracking Voltage range of 28V to 45V. If all four inputs are so configured, you will be inputting 1.6 kW of power from the SKLep SSM units. However, the SKLep SSM units have a shutdown feature if greater than 5% over the maximum power is demanded. The QT2 microinverter has a Maximum Continuous Output Power of 2,000VA. So, if the load exceeds 1,680VA, the SKLep SSM units may shutdown.

    b. If you increased the number of SKLep SSM 100W units to 5, to avoid the potential shutdown problem, then the input voltage will elevate to 60V. The 60V is right at the upper allowed limit for the Operating Voltage Range of 60V. One might get around this by lowering each SKLep SSM to slightly below 12VDC. But that might reduce the available power from the SKLep SSM 100W units. If the power reduction is more than 5%, you might have the potential of a shutdown again.

    Steve

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Klas,

    I agree with your analysis and your conclusion.

    However, the original question was given the existence of a PV Solar Panel system, how would one use SKLep SSM technology to improve the PV Solar Panel system performance?

    The simplest solution is to leave the PV Solar Panel system alone and implement a parallel SKLep SSM system.

    Then there are choices depending on Grid-Tie or No Grid options.

    Steve

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    a. the Ecat shuts down
    b. the load draws the energy it needs
    c- there is a margin of 5% before the Ecat shuts down
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Roberto:
    Thank you for your kind attention to the work of our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Klas:
    Thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Klas

    To all Readers,

    The discussion on how to improve the efficiency of an installed solar system is ongoing here
    but I still miss an analysis of the real benefits of having solar and E-Cat power in one system.

    If the main perceived reason is “only one inverter is needed” I think
    building a new reliable and easily expandable E-Cat Power system from scratch could offer several advantages.
    Let us analyze more the benefits while reviewing a practical case of a grid-connected microinverter
    in a residential installation.
    In the example I describe here, I use a 3-phase microinverter type QT2 and an ECU-R gateway.
    https://emea.apsystems.com/portfolio-item/apsystems-qt2/

    From the datasheet, one QT2 can safely handle 4 inputs of each 4 pcs 100W (12V, 8,3 A) E-Cat generators connected in series.
    This should allow a 24/7 production of up to 1,6 kW of grid power, corresponding to 14,000 kWh/year.
    As no batteries are involved, any peak load over 1.6kW is fetched from the grid, and not consumed power is exported back.
    I believe this setup might be a good start for many households and when you need more power, just add another QT2 and some more
    E-Cats.
    Still, it should also be noted that the QT2 is a grid-following inverter, requiring a grid connection and
    a suitable grid-forming microinverter might be the better choice in some cases.

    So, what are the real benefits of a separate system compared with adding E-Cat to an existing solar inverter?

    1. More reliable and predictable (constant,24/7) power generation.
    – reduced risk for “string breakdowns”
    – no solar panel “shadowing “interfering effects
    – – no need for “time-switching” circuitry

    2. Easier installation and expansion
    – no high voltage issues (voltage range, safety, extra converters)
    – flexible and convenient modular expansion

    Fine, but what about the extra costs for the microinverter inverter?

    Calculation (estimated excl VAT):

    – 1pcs QT2+ECU-control unit+ initial certified installation: < 1000 $
    Extension with another QT2 cost is then easy and cost-effective.
    https://www.planetsoarshop.com/en/products/apsystems-qt2-micro-inventer/downloads

    – 1.6 kW of E-CatPower (16*249$ + installation): < 5000 $

    My conclusion:
    Whether I have already a solar system installed OR not, based on presently available information,
    I would probably go for a separate E-Cat microinverter-based system.

    Best regards
    Klas

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    On the SKLep SSM units, what happens when:

    a. The demand is much higher than the nominal rating. For example, a demand of 15W on a 10W SKLep SSM unit?
    b. The demand is much lower than the nominal rating. For example, a demand of 5W on a SKLep SSM unit?
    c. The demand is slightly higher than the nominal rating. For example, a demand of 10.1W on a 10W SKLep SSM unit?

    Thank you.

  • Roberto

    Dr Rossi,
    The idea to integrate the Ecat with solar systems to make them work also during the night and increase substantially the COP is genial.
    Best
    Roberto

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Both,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    You had previously spoken of a grid-tied system that required grounding and/or power from the electrical grid. later, the SKLep SSM which had no such requirement.

    Later, you reported a “Safety” problem. Is the “Safety” problem common to both of the above designs or to only the SKLep SSM design?

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Analysis on Using SKLep Technology to Supplement PV Solar Panels for Electricity Production.

    Assume existing 400W max output PV Solar Panel with a microinverter capable of outputting 350W of grid power. Current cost for a 400W Solar Panel is about $750. Maximum voltage is about 37VDC.

    Cost for a microinverter is around $200. Minimum start-up voltage is 30VDC.

    Cost for SKLep Technology unit is about $2.50 per Watt.

    Assume SKLep unit is specified to output 32VDC (For example, 3 100W SKLep units wired in series and adjusted for a total voltage of 32VDC.).

    Assume using a diode bridge to control power, coming from the PV Solar Panel and the SKLep unit, that is received by the microinverter. The unit with the highest voltage provides power to the microinverter.

    The “sunk costs” of the current PV Solar Panel unit is the cost of the PV Solar Panel (about $750) and the cost of the microinverter (about $200) plus some cabling and rack costs.

    The additional cost of the addition of the SKLep technology units will be $750 if we assume a 300W output. Optionally, we could provide a Lipo battery with control logic with an assumed cost of $100.

    The rated lifetime of the PV Solar Panel and the microinverter is 25 years. The rated lifetime of the SKLep technology unit is about 11 years – we shall assume it is 12.5 years

    Assuming a location where the sun will provide 6 hours per day of useful PV Solar Panel energy, adding the SKLep technology will increase total energy production by a factor of four. This can be done at a cost an additional 2 x ($300 + $100) over the “sunk costs” of $950 ($750 + $200) or a total lifetime cost of $1,750. So, a factor of four increase in total energy output for a roughly doubling of the equipment cost. This does not include the additional labor costs to install the SKLep technology units and the mid-life replacement of the SKLep technology units labor costs.

    As an alternative, where no PV Solar Panel installation exists, use SKLep technology with microinverters or grid tie inverters. This will likely be less expensive than installing new PV Solar Panels.

    Thoughts?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Nils Fryklund:
    1- yes, we will do
    2- no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Patrick:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Patrick

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    Are you still taking pre-orders for the ecat?
    Best regards,
    Patrick

  • Nils Fryklund

    Dear Andrea!
    1- Will you not sell the E-cat as a separate energy source?
    2- Must the E-cat be online with another energy source?
    Best regards
    Nils Fryklund

  • Andrea Rossi

    Cathy Johnson:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Wilfried:
    Thank you for your insight,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Wilfried

    Dear Andrea,

    What do I understand wrong? If I add an E-Cat to a solar module, I can control the system so that it delivers the same power to a battery 24/7. This would make the design of photovoltaic systems easier to plan. However, I don’t have a real advantage, as the E-Cat doesn’t run at full power and its service life is not proportional to the energy drawn. It would therefore be better to only run E-Cats at full power in order to save costs. Or you would have to use lots of small E-Cats that switch off and on again depending on the amount of solar power.

    Best Regards
    Wilfried

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