United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

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40,511 comments to United States Patent US 9,115,913 B1

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1. no, because the term depends on factors some of which do not depend on us
    2. hundreds of prototypes, all under tests
    3. premature
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Rachel Corrie:
    Depends on the specific situations,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Anonymous

    Has the Ecat a theoretical base, also for its last version NGU ?

  • Rachel Corrie

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    will E-Cat NGUs be able to emit light:

    1) In all directions?
    2) In two directions (forward and back)?
    3) In one direction only?

    Have A Nice Day

    Rachel

  • Rachel Corrie

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    I will try to rephrase my question:

    Let’s imagine PV panels built perpendicular to the ground in such a way that the whole structure looks like a honeycomb when viewed from above.

    Six PV panels placed perpendicular to the ground in a hexagon and one E-Cat NGU in the middle of this hexagon.

    In this way, one E-Cat NGU could illuminate six PV panels if the E-Cat NGU is able to emit light in all directions (omnidirectionally).

    Truly omnidirectional would mean that additional PV panels could form the “roof” of each hexagon, and one E-Cat NGU could illuminate even more PV panels than six at once.

    If the E-Cat NGU is not able to emit light in all directions, at least the ability of the E-Cat NGU to emit light in two directions (bidirectionally) – to shine forward and backward at the same time – would help to increase the economic efficiency. The PV panels could be placed in a row behind each other and one E-Cat NGU could light two PV panels at once.

    Will E-Cat NGUs be able to emit light:

    1) In all directions?
    2) In two directions?
    3) One way only?

    Have A Nice Day

    Rachell

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    A few questions:

    1. Has the NGU design stabilized where you can go into limited or full-scale production?
    2. How many NGU units have been made? 10’s, 100’s, 1,000’s?
    3. Has testing of the NGU unit(s) shown compliance with all specifications?

  • Walter

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    would it be possible that you offer your ecat also in connection with D.C. electric heating? Maybe together with an established manufacturer, all integrated in a radiator, space-saving without inverter?
    It would be lossy, costly and an additional error source to work electric heating with ecat AND inverter. Every radiator could have its own ecats, so no plug and heating pipes are needed. It would make housebuilding cheaper and easier. And it will be the biggest market, because most of the energy is used for space heating.
    Best regards
    Walter

  • Anonimous

    I think the best thing is that the Ecat makes electricity and the customer makes of it what he wants enjoying the whole efficiency of the Ecat NGU, although to couple it with existing solar systems can be a good way to make easier to exploit the exixting authorizations and grid agreements

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    1. not necessarily
    2. yes: every passage reduces the efficiency.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for your suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Yet another application for eCat technology

    Farmers are always looking for way to reduce expenditures.

    In the USA, there are approximately 300,000 farms. In each farm there are water pumps, from small ones used for residential water, to larger ones used for irrigational purposes.

    For pumps that run nearly continuously, it may make sense to convert to NGU-generated electricity. Power requirements for the pumps range from sub-kiloWatt to hundreds of kiloWatts, depending on the type and the application.

    Thoughts?

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    For the eCat SKLep NGU units –

    1. Do you envision the solar panel application of NGU units is only used for existing solar panels?
    2. Would NGU units configured to directly produce electricity (as opposed to light) be more efficient in producing power than the NGU units producing light and then converting the light to electricity via the solar panel?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Rachel Corrie:
    Thank you for the suggestion.
    I do not understand exactly your question: can you kindly rephrase it ?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    M.Elshoff:
    Sorry, I do not have knowledge of the item.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • M.Elshoff

    Dear Dr. Rossi
    If you know about Neutrino Power,what do you think about it, is it Realiti , or a Fake ?

    https://www.energy-news.net/whispers-of-change-ushering-in-an-era-of-neutrinovoltaic-empowerment/

  • Rachel Corrie

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    your streaming problems will be solved a minute after you replace the Windows OS computer connected to the camera with a Linux OS computer. No more hundreds of restarts and forced updates.

    Let me ask you one question: Will the E-Cat NGU be able to light the panels omnidirectionally or bidirectionally, or will it only light in one direction?

    Have A Nice Weekend

    Rachel

  • Andrea Rossi

    Paul:
    Yes, the non stop streaming poses problems that are different from a normal use, this is why we are worried and still working on it.
    I can say that we are mathematically sure we will restart the public streaming not later than March 2024. It is already running, but not in public mode and we want to be sure we will not have troubles once we go public for a streaming that has to run for years never stopping.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Paul

    Hello Mr Rossi.
    What is the status of the E-cat streaming that was planned for restart in December. You recently said the safety problems which caused the stop were solved with the NGU. It seems fairly simple to connect the NGU up and turn on the cam. Are there other explanations for the the delay, such as limited number (or no) units available because they are being used for development activities?

  • Maico

    Steven Nicholes Karels

    The elements reported in your post would require a very detailed “comparison” that could hardly be exhausted in a few words.
    As spectators of this “new energy revolution” that Dr. Rossi is trying to “start”, we cannot do anything other than try to “best understand” the information he provides us on the blog, trying to build our own “mental image” of what Ecat can be and the performances it can have, waiting for all this data and information to be revealed to the whole world 😉
    From what I understand, in the next semester (we don’t yet know the official dates and therefore I’m deliberately keeping it “loose”) we will have the opportunity to see:

    1) The reactivation of the streaming of the Mini Sklep NGU which in SSM powers an LED bulb (we already know what it will consist of)

    2) The demo of the “solar system” which, working in synergy with mini SKlep NGUs, is able to produce in 24 hours (just to consider both the presence of the sun and its absence) a quantity of energy X times greater than that produced by the same solar system without Mini Sklep NGU (hence the term “multiply” that Rossi used in his posts). I am very curious about this new type of Demo, to date not much is known about it, but I am sure that in due time Dr. Rossi will be able to surprise us a lot!!!

    and maybe (I hope this too within the first semester, but to date we don’t have any information about it)
    3) also the Ecat-EV Demo which will certainly generate a lot of interest (especially because having already talked about it a lot in the past we know quite well the Test protocol that Dr. Rossi intends to use and therefore we know that he has all the cards in hand rule to become a “mind-blowing” and “convincing” demo)

    Sorry if I haven’t entered into a “technical comparison” but as you rightly say, without official technical information ours would only be “suppositions” and therefore we will only be able to make speeches not substantiated by “certain information” 😉
    Furthermore, I believe that Rossi’s blog is not the right place to deal with the exchange of opinions between “followers”, the blog is the place where we expose our questions and where he answers when he can. 🙂

    I’ll stop here, thanks for the feedback on my post, now let’s leave room for Dr. Rossi…..

    I am sure that behind everything that Dr Rossi has done up to now and is still doing there is a very complex and elaborate plan to bring his Ecat Technology to the market in the shortest possible time, with a high level of industrialization and reliability, having already overcome the challenges and therefore acquired experience in the integration of the Ecat Sklep NGU in 2 very specific areas:

    1) Solar Systems
    2) and Electric Mobility

    Ciao Maico

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Maico,

    I also enjoy great discussions on JONP. You and I both suffer from a lack of detailed information on exactly how eCat SKLep NGU technology works. And therefore, we do not precisely know its capabilities and its limitations.

    The regenerative energy recapture is important in two major effects: (1) retrieving energy from braking the car to recharge the Battery System; and (2) to assist in vehicle braking. Recharging the Battery System is not needed if eCat technology is providing sufficient energy to run the vehicle. The regenerative braking energy could be dumped into a resistive network to dissipate the energy. This would actually be a benefit as a 100% charged Battery System does not support regenerative braking. Alternatively, if a Battery System was present and only partially recharged, say to 80% of nominal capacity, then the Battery System could always handle the regenerative energy.

    My concerns about the dynamic load on the eCat system is based on AR’s past comments on the eCat technology’s inability to handle power factors different than 1.0. Maybe they have addressed his deficiency/issue. The solution that the eCat SKLep technology simply shuts down if this problem occurs is not acceptable in a vehicle that requires a constant, but varying source of power.

    The other implicit issue, that can be solved but might be very costly, is accommodating all the different EV manufacturers and their different implementations and requirements. It might easily overwhelm AR’s talented but personnel limited team. The integration would need to shift to the EV manufacturer’s responsibility with some standard interface being provided by AR.

    Lastly, the cost of AR components, right now, is much higher than equivalent Lithium battery technologies. What helps to increase the cost is all the environmental controls on the EV Battery System to accommodate too hot or too cold conditions. I suspect that the eCat SKLep units may have environmental limitations that are outside the required automotive environment allowed conditions.

    As AR has frequently said, some form of integrated approach will be required. I believe it is likely that a combination of Battery System and eCat technology would be employed. Imaging a Battery System, working the huge dynamic range required for an EV but never requiring recharging, always keep in the “sweet zone” of temperature and the “sweet zone” for State of Charge. The Battery System would outlast the EV.

    Thoughts?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Maico:
    Thank you for your intelligent considerartions, clearly coming from an expert of the matter; about my answers, I prefer to delay them after the test we will make,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Maico

    Dear Dr. Rossi

    I always follow with great interest the “exchanges of opinion” that you very kindly allow on your blog.

    I’m referring to the statement made by Steven Nicholes Karels, specifically, that an array of Ecat Sklep NGU units cannot replace a Tesla battery as the Ecat may have problems with rapidly changing loads.
    To this statement you reply that interfacing with an EV is not simple and that it depends on the characteristics of the systems of the different manufacturers.

    If I can I would like to try to have my say, hoping for a kind response from him.

    Based on what he wrote several times in his blog:

    1) If the power demand of the load connected to the Ecat SKlep NGU array does not exceed the “nominal” power for which the array was assembled, I ABSOLUTELY DO NOT BELIEVE that there could be problems managing highly variable loads!!! (at worst, in the event of a request for power greater than the “nominal” one, the Ecat would be turned off, as you stated on several occasions)

    Can you kindly confirm/comment on this statement of mine?

    If the answer to point 1 was Yes, I continue with my second thought:

    I perfectly understand his statement that the interfacing of the ECAT SKLep NGU depends on the characteristics of the systems of the different manufacturers, but I sincerely believe that the ECAT EV Demo has, specifically, these purposes:
    perfectly understand his statement that the interfacing of the ECAT SKLep NGU depends on the characteristics of the systems of the different manufacturers, but I sincerely believe that the ECAT EV Demo has, specifically, these purposes:

    2) Demonstrate to the whole world that the ECAT-EV, appropriately set up and configured thanks to its AI, is perfectly capable of managing highly variable loads that remain within the power manageable by the specific configuration.

    3) Demonstrate to the whole world, thanks to the Electric vehicle used in your Demo (which as you have already stated is an electric vehicle from a “prime” car manufacturer), that interfacing with an Electric Vehicle has already been carried out by you and your Team and that therefore this is absolutely feasible, guaranteeing the normal operation of the Ecat SKlep NGU Array during the movement of the Electric Vehicle itself, thus guaranteeing the recharging of the batteries during its normal operation.

    4) When the car manufacturers see what you and your team have been able to do, the issue of specific interfacing with the “electrical” management systems of the various vehicle manufacturers will become “negligible”. They are the same producers of Electric Vehicles who, knowing perfectly the characteristics of their “products”, have all the knowledge to integrate the Ecat inside their Vehicles. In this way they will make the considerable amount of energy coming from the ECAT easily usable for recharging the battery, both when the vehicle is stationary and in motion. At this point for these electric vehicle manufacturers, with the support of you and your team who have already carried out the study and implemented the integration of the ECAT-EV in the demo, it will be very easy to integrate the ECAT into their vehicles. . There is no doubt if the ECat-Ev demo is successful… it will be the beginning of the “revolution” of electric mobility!!!

    5) in summary I think the purpose of your Ecat-EV demo is

    5a) demonstrate to the whole world that the Ecat is perfectly capable of functioning inside an electric vehicle
    5b) that integration into an electric vehicle is feasible (in fact you will demonstrate it “effectively”, to the whole world, in the Ecat-EV demo)
    5c) that you and your team have the necessary know-how to collaborate with the various electric vehicle manufacturers, to make them autonomous in this integration, thus bringing the ECat into their vehicles

    I sincerely hope I haven’t asked too “direct” questions/statements

    I certainly gave vent to my imagination/hope….. but seeing how you have always acted in these years, you have never done anything that didn’t have a very specific aim and purpose.

    6) As I see it, continuing to prepare the Ecat-EV demo can only mean one thing and that is that you are convinced that it is feasible and that when you feel ready you will demonstrate it “effectively” to the whole world !!! 😉

    I thank you in advance even just for “reading” me and I sincerely hope that you can publish me on your blog possibly replying/commenting on some or all (I hope the latter) of my “externalities” 😉

    thanks again for your “consideration”

    Regards Maico

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gavino Mamia:
    Agreed,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gavino Mamia

    Doctor Rossi,
    I understand the specific difficulties of the characteristics of each type of vehicle, but I am interested in the existence of a vehicle that does not require fossil fuels.
    All I need is that there is one, then everyone will choose the color they prefer and the most suitable setup.
    That would already be a lot

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    The interfacing is not simple and it depends on all the specific characteristics of the different manufacturers,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jacobia Altrovious:
    Yet not enough,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jacobia Altrovius

    Dear Dr. Rossi.
    You have been collecting orders for almost 2 years now.
    How many have been ordered, or how far are we from the 1 million orders placed?

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    An array of eCat SKLep NGU units cannot replace a Tesla Battery System. One of the functions of the Tesla Battery System is to absorb the regenerative energy that braking provides. In addition, I understand that the NGU units may have problems with rapidly changing loads, which are one of the characteristics of automotive motor requirements.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Obviously you are referring to
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    Answers:
    1- about the Casimir Effect, please read well the paragraph 1 of that publication and the references in it, detailed in the paragraph “Bibliography”
    2- about the speed of the light: you are right, the electrons, being Fermions, cannot reach c, but if you read carefully the same paper you cited, in particular in paragraph 5, you will learn that along our theoretical principles, it is not the electron that travels at c, but it is its charge’s motion around the Zitterbewegung orbit that travels at the speed of light: also about this matter you can find corroborating issues in the references and their details in the Bibliography.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Anonymous

    What the hell can be the function of the Casimir force in the Ecat, as reported in the paper authored by you on Researchgate
    Ecat the new fire and long range particle interactions ?
    Besides: how can go electrons at c being fermions ?
    Can you answer, please ?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tom:
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels,
    Thank you for this information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    The cold temperature problem for Tesla charging can be easily solved by eCat technology.

    The problem is that fast charging (i.e., Tesla Supercharging) requires the Tesla Battery System to be above a certain temperature. However, this is not true if slow charging is used.

    Consider:

    1. 16 each 100W SKLep NGU units tied to produce 1,600W at 48 VDC. Current will be about 33 Amperes.
    2. mounted in a suitcase or other hard enclosure.
    3. with a suitable 48VDC to 110VSC inverter, such as Pure Sine Wave Inverter (1600W-8000W), 12V/24V/48V/60V to 110V/220V Car Inverter, with AC Outlet + Digital Display,1600W-48Vto110V – price about $100USD, available on Amazon.
    4. Use the Tesla Mobile which will default to the 110VAC input at 12 Amperes or about 1.4 kW charging power.
    5. Connect the output of the inverter to the Tesla Mobile Connector unit and slowly charge the Tesla vehicle.

    Even with Sentry mode on (which consumes about 0.25 kW) there is still enough charging power to slowly charge the Tesla Battery System, but not enough power to heat the Tesla Battery System.

    If Tesla Supercharging is desired, have a sufficient Battery System State of Charge to drive to the Tesla Supercharger with Preconditioning On to warm up the Battery System before attempting the Tesla Supercharging.

    The only issue remaining is the physical securing of the suitcase and inverter and Mobile Connector units. This could be solved if Tesla added an internally mounted charging port in the Frunk. Here, all items would be inside the Frunk and thus secure from theft.

    Thoughts?

  • Tom

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    it is this link: https://www.boredpanda.com/tesla-owner-locked-out-car-26000-dollars-new-battery/
    According to the high price of 140,000 $ and the year it should be a 90 kwh battery (and 1:1 replaced with your ecat it would be even cheaper).
    Best regards
    Tom

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tom:
    Which power does this battery have ?
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tom

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    as i read today the replacement of a battery of a Tesla car after 8 years costs 26,000 $.
    It would be time that your invention come to the market as soon as possible!
    Best regards
    Tom

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    The Need for Tesla Onboard Charging

    Cold Temperatures in Chicago render Tesla cars unchargeable.

    If you own a Tesla, as I do, just getting to a Tesla Supercharger may not be enough. The EV Battery System must be of sufficient temperature to be able to accept charging.

    From a news report:

    “One expert told the news outlet that cold weather can impact the ability of electric vehicles to charge properly.

    “It’s not plug and go. You have to precondition the battery, meaning that you have to get the battery up to the optimal temperature to accept a fast charge,” said Mark Bilek of the Chicago Auto Trade Association.”

    If you have a home charger and always plug-in, then the Tesla car will keep the battery in an acceptable temperature range and adequately charged.

    But, if you park on the street with no charger and the temperature drops, you may not be able to charge at a supercharger if the battery system’s temperature gets too low.

    The solution would be onboard charging, at least enough to keep the Battery System at an acceptable temperature.

    Thoughts?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gene Quong:
    Thank you for the suggestions,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gene Quong

    I live in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada where we have an abundance of Telsa electric cars. On the way to my
    local library (about 2 km) I counted 10 Telsa cars Two Telsa automobiles are parked within two hundred meters
    of my house. For a preliminary demonstration your company could just charge Telsa cars only. I ordered 3 eCats (100 W)
    on January, 2022, and I wish you a very successful 2024. One eCat would be very useful. I used a power meter to
    measure the maximum and minimum input wattage needed to power a Windows 10 computer. The minimum is 20 watts
    and the maximum is 80 watts. The Power Supply is rated at 240 Watts.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Tom Kaminski:
    Not yet, thank you for the suggestion,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Tom Kaminski

    There are many possible applications for the ecat. One came to me as I was helping my wife shop for a new bike (hers was stolen). We looked a number of different bikes, including eBikes. In the end she chose a non-electric bike of the “commuter” variety. However, I was quite impressed by the progress eBikes have made since I last looked at (and purchased!) one.
    Bosch typically provides the motors, controllers, and batteries for many of the bikes. It is estimated that over 25 Million eBikes were sold in 2022. A typical battery is a 36 volt, 400AHr battery driving a 250 to 500 Watt motor. On a flat path, the bike/battery range is about 50 miles. A Bosch “compact” charger provides about 2 Amps of current and charges the 400AHr battery in 6.5 hours. A replacement battery is about $700. I estimate that 10, 10 Watt SKLep devices would fit on top of the battery and could provide the energy to charge the battery. The eBike would then have either extended range (nearly 100 miles in 6.5 hours at 15 MPH), or never have to be connected to mains for charging, making it very easy to operate the bike. The $250 cost of 10 SKLep devices is a fraction (1/3) of the cost of the battery, but would nearly double the range of the bike.
    I live in a Condo with no electrical outlets for the charger. Out on a trail, there are also no connections for a charger. It would be convenient never to have to charge the bike battery.
    The town I live in has a bike rental service with bike racks spread out around the city. The racks have solar panels to power the electronics that charge the fees and connect with a phone app. For a daily fee, you can ride bikes between the bike racks up to one hour per ride. When the vendor switched from peddle bikes to eBikes, daily ridership tripled. The bike racks do not have chargers – a service van rotates between sites to replace discharged batteries.
    Many cities also have rental electric scooters. Most do not have charging facilities. Again, the ecat SKLep or its evolution could be used to provide a needed upgrade to the electric scooters.
    1). Have you considered eBike augmentation?
    2). Have you considered electric scooter augmentation?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Walter Oggioni:
    Yes,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Raffaele Bongo:
    I am sorry, this information is restricted, so far.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven Nicholes Karels:
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gene Quong,
    Yes, that’s where we want to arrive to, but it is very difficult, albeit not impossible, because presently we have to make an interfacial system to connect the Ecat to every specific car.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gene Quong

    Dear Andrea Rossi:

    You are trying to demonstrate that the ECats (100 W) can be mounted on a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) and charge it continuously, so the driving range of the BEV is increased by a very large
    amount without stopping. To simplify this demonstration the ECats could be used as a stationary charging station. Tesla EVs have gone through many design iterations over the years, and one of
    the most-revised parts of Tesla’s design has been the high voltage battery. The early years of the Model S and Model X saw everything from a 40 kWh battery pack to a massive 100 kWh pack, with
    plenty of packs in between. For example, if you charged a Telsa with a 40 kwh battery pack you could aggregate 80 ECats (100W) together for a total of 8 kw to charge the Telsa battery from 20% to
    80% (this seems the best way to charge a BEV). A 20% charge would 8 kwh, the 80% charge would 32 kwh. The charging time would 24 / 8 = 3 hours. Just invite 3rd party independent companies to
    come to your factory. You could do a Youtube video where you charge multiple BEV’s to prove that ECats do not require fuel. Telsa and BYD are major BEV manufacturers, so you could concentrate on
    those two companies in the beginning. You could suspend the 8 kw ECat module on a small plexiglass platform to show that there are no hidden power or ground wires.

    Gene Quong

  • Steven Nicholes Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Peterbilt Model 579EV
    Class 8 vehicle
    GSWR: 82,000 lbs
    Range on fill charge: 150 miles
    Battery capacity: 400 kW-hrs
    cost: approximately $350,000USD

    Again, US regulations limit driving to 13.5 hours in a 24-hour day.

    efficiency = 400 kW-hrs/150 miles = 2.67 kW-hrs/mile

    Daily range = 13.5 hours * 75 mph = 1,012.5 miles.

    Daily energy usage = 1,012.5 miles * 2.67 kW-hrs/mile = 2,703 kW-hrs.

    Subtract 400 kW-hrs leaves 2,303 kW-hrs

    Required power from eCat unit = 2,303 kW-hrs / 14 hrs = 164 kW

    To account for losses, an eCat unit delivering 175 kW will be required.

  • Raffaele Bongo

    Hello Dr. Rossi
    You are currently working with light energy from ecat to improve the performance of solar panels.
    We know that ecat produces, before any transformation, very strong light, heat and electricity.
    Can you remind me :

    1 – what is the emitted light power and spectrum?
    I remember that this light was very intense and that you had to protect your eyes with specially adapted glasses.

    2 – What is the role of heat?

    3 – What is the electrical power before any manipulation?
    We know that you produce 10 W per unit

    Best regards

    Raffaele

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