How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?

by Dott. Giuliano Bettini
Retired. Earlier: Selenia SpA, Rome and IDS SpA, Pisa
Also Adjunct Professor at the University of Pisa
Adjunct Professor at Naval Academy, Leghorn (Italian Navy)

Abstract
In the present article I would like to answer a question posed by L. Kowalsky in a recent paper: how can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper? “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler”, says a guy. I apologizes if I am too simplistic here.

Introduction
The interest on Andrea Rossi’s Nickel-Hydrogen Cold Fusion technology is accelerating [1]. However, Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. Kowalski [2]. says that “this seems to be impossible because the produced copper isotopes rapidly decay into Ni”. But how it works?

How it works
Following Focardi Rossi [3]. a Ni58 nucleus produces a Copper nucleus according to the reaction

Ni58 + p → Cu59

Copper nucleus Cu59 decays with positron (e+) and neutrino (ν) emission in Ni59 nucleus according to

Cu59 → Ni59 + ν + e+

Then (e+) annichilates with (e-) in two gamma-rays

e- + e+ → γ + γ

Starting [3] from Ni58 which is the more abundant isotope, we can obtain as described in the two above processes Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62. Because Cu63, which can be formed starting by Ni62, is stable and does not decay in Ni63, the chain stops at Ni62 (i.e. Cu63). Each process means some MeV.

Of course how can a proton p gets captured by the Ni58 nucleus? (and subsequent Ni59, Ni60, Ni61 and Ni62). Following Stremmenos [4]. a neutron-like particle, an electron proton pair, a mini-atom, a proton masked as a neutron, gets captured by the Ni58.

If the masked proton becomes a neutron the result is Ni59.
In order to have Cu59 (increase of atomic number from 28 to 29) the electron (of the masked proton) gets ejected from the nucleus. The masked proton becomes a proton.

The same process holds for all the subsequent transformations, until Cu63.
It remains to be understood the issue of the gamma radiation in the MeV range.

Numbers
I am an electronic engineer, so I need easy numbers in order to understand.
However “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler”, says a guy. Maybe I am too simple here.
Let’s calculate.
 
MeV for each Ni transformation
I read that starting from Ni58 we can obtain Copper formation and its successive decay in Nickel, producing Ni59, Ni60, and Ni62. The chain stops at Cu63 stable.
For simplicity I assume all the Nickel in the reactor in the form Ni58.
For simplicity I suppose for each Ni58 the whole sequence of events from Ni58 to Cu63 and as a rough estimate I calculate the mass defect between (Ni58 plus 5 nucleons) and the final state Cu63.
Ni58 mass is calculated to be 57.95380± 15 amu
The actual mass of a copper-Cu63 nucleus is 62.91367 amu
Mass of Ni58 plus 5 nucleons is  57.95380+5=62.95380 amu
Mass defect is 62.95380-62.91367=0.04013 amu
1 amu = 931 MeV is used as a standard conversion
0.04013×931 MeV=37.36 MeV
So each transformation of Ni58 into Cu63 releases 37.36MeV of nuclear energy.
 
 
Nickel consumption
According to many blogs in the Internet “One hundred grams of nickel powder can power a 10 kW unit for a minimum of six months”.
How much of Ni58 should be transformed, in six months of continuous operation, in order to generate 10 kW?
I follow a procedure outlined in [2].
10 kW is thermal or electrical (?) power. The nuclear power must be larger. Assume a nuclear power twice:
20 kW = 20,000 J/s = 1.25 x 10**17 MeV/s.
Each transformation of Ni58 into Cu63 releases 37.36MeV of nuclear energy.
The number of Ni58 transformations should thus be equal to (1.25 x 10**17)/37.36 = 3.346 x 10**15 per second.
Multiplying by the number of seconds in six months (1.55 x 10**7) the total number of transformed Ni58 nuclei is 5.186 x 10**22.
This means 5 grams.
The order of magnitude is not exactly the same but seems to be plausible. This means also 5 grams of Nickel in Rossi’s reactor transmuted into (stable) Copper after six months of continuous operation at the rate of 10 kW.
 
Conclusions
Rossi says that about 30% of nickel was turned into copper, after 6 months of uninterrupted operation. At first glance this seems to agree with calculations based on simple assumptions.
 
References

 

988 comments to How can 30% of nickel in Rossi’s reactor be transmuted into copper?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Christian Scholl:
    1. no
    2. it depends on the power of the PSU
    3. no
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • christian SCHOLL

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    If you don’t mind, some questions about PSU and AI.
    1 Is one PSU supplied with every combined Ecat-SKLEP?
    2 How many Ecat-SKLEPs can be powered?
    3 I suppose that articial intelligence is included in PSU. Correct ?
    Kind regards,

    Christian

  • Andrea Rossi

    Christian Scholl:
    Thank you for the suggestion
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • christian SCHOLL

    Hello Andrea,

    Why not put together 10 mini E-cats in series to obtain an E-Cat 100 w 120 V DC?
    a) 3 E-Cat 100 W is series can reach 360 V DC, optimal voltage for solar inverter
    b) Ecat 100w DC can be used in parallel without inverter to heat a water tank.
    The reduction in voltage (230 AC to 120 DC) results in a decrease in power by a factor of 3.8 and a proportional increase in heating time.
    Best regards

    Christian

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Readers:
    The live streaming of the Ecat SKLep can also be reached rapidly googling

    ecat.com/live-streaming

    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Guido:
    a) is the more convenient
    d) the COP is so high, that even a 10% variation does not substantially affect the convenience
    d1) 12/12 becaise you don’t need an inverter
    e) thank you for your support to our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Guido

    Drar Dr. Rossi
    Which ecat settings (for orders) do you recommend to power a house since most of electric devices in Europe are running by 230VAC?
    a) 230VAC input, 230VAC output
    b) other settings (please name it)
    c) if not a) recommended could you explain why?
    d) Do different settings have an impact on the COP?
    d1) Which setting gives you max. COP?
    e) You’re doing a great job.
    Thank you for your answer.
    Kind regards Guido

  • Louis

    @Sceptic Scientist,
    I share your answer to the answer of Andrea to your former comment: the light made by the Ecat Sklep with 0.0032 Wh/h is extremely close to the SSM.
    Louis

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ruby:
    The question of Sceptic Scientist was opportune,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    Did you notice a growth of orders after the publication of the youtube video of the Ecat SKLep in permanent streaming ?

  • Sceptic Scientist

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    Thank you for your answer, that is convincing. No lamp in this world could consume only 0.0032967 Wh/h shining with the light we can see in the youtube video
    https://youtu.be/tYHSR_HQwNI
    That light surely needs more than 1 Wh/h, that is clearly a very conservative assumption, and the COP 303.333 will make a revolution: a veritable “new fire”.
    Thank you for your prompt answer
    Sceptic Scientist

  • Ruby

    Dr Rossi,
    Very impressive your answer to Sceptic Scientist.
    Congratulations, this is a masterpiece
    Cheers
    Ruby

  • Andrea Rossi

    Sceptic Scientist:
    Good question, and very timely, in fact in this very moment I am in my laboratory measuring the electricity consumed by an Ecat SKLep, using a FLUKE Amperometer in modality MicroAmperes, so that I can read with precision up to the sixth decimal of an Ampere; this is allowing, at last, to me to define the denominator of the COP, which is important, because a zero at the denominator would not make sense in Physics.
    It is turning out that the exact consume of current of the Ecat SKLep is: A = 0.000333 with 9.9 V DC
    The data are stable, after about 6 hours.
    This said, I can answer precisely to your intriguing question: assuming the Ecat SKLep generates only 1 Wh/h of energy, which means 1 W of employed power, the coefficient of performance would be 1 W/[0.000333 A*9.9 V] = 1 W/0.0032967 W which gives COP = 303.333
    Obviously, assuming that with 1 W you can obtain the light that will shine for 100000 hours in that perpetual streaming.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Sceptic Scientist

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    Let us assume, to be conservative, that the power generated by the Ecat Sklep, to obtain the light shown in the video of the Ecat Sklep streamed by Youtube, is only 1 Watt: which would be in this case the real COP ?
    Thank you if you can answer this question of mine,
    Best
    Sceptic Scientist

  • Andrea Rossi

    Prof:
    Thank you for the update,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Prof

    Dr Rossi,
    Today the paper
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/330601653_E-Cat_SK_and_long_range_particle_interactions
    has reached
    Readings 109000 !
    And counting…
    Prof

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bob Fast:
    You must have enough power to sustain your peak demand; to reach 5 kW of power you need 50 Ecat SKLeps. Otherwise you must have a backup, for example a system that draws from the grid when the Ecat is unabled by an excess of load, which is the simpler way.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Bob Fast

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I believe on the hottest days in the summer, I will rarely have peak load above 5 kw. My average daily usage is 25kwh over the year.

    Thank You,

    Bob Fast

  • Andrea Rossi

    Julian:
    Thank you !
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Julian

    Dr Rossi
    I am spreading the word to watch the youtube video
    https://youtu.be/tYHSR_HQwNI
    The best way to help you for us readers
    Godspeed,
    Julian

  • Andrea Rossi

    Christian SCHOLL:
    1
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • christian SCHOLL

    Hello Andrea,

    What happens if we connect an Ecat 100 W DC (without inverter) to a 150 W resistor?
    1 Ecat stops immediately
    2 Ecat continues to produce 100 W by lowering the voltage
    Best regards

    Christian

  • Andrea Rossi

    Sam:
    Thank you !
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Sam

    Hello DR Rossi

    This is a talk on the Life and
    Work of William kingdom Clifford.

    https://youtu.be/MtzhlvaZKL4

    Regards
    Sam

  • Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    Good question indeed, thank you.
    William Kingdon Clifford (1845-1879) was a philisopher and mathematic, Professor at the Trinity College of Cambridge.
    His algebra has been dubbed an Occam’s razor because its pluridimensional vectors allow to bind the characteristics of elementary particles in a synthetic form that allows to define with simplicity their structure.
    The most remarkable way to answer your question is that, thanks to its algebra, he himself has been able in his paper “On theories of Physical Forces”, written in the year 1870, published in London (UK) in the year 1879, at page 109-123, using his algebra, defines the motus of bodies as variations of the curvature of the space, making useless the hypothesis of the ether in the propagation of the light waves: this intuition is at the base of the following theories of Albert Einstein. It is quite difficult to think that Einstein did not know this paper, published in the year of his birth, even if he never cited this reference in his papers.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Horst Dieter Preschel:
    The voltage of a single unit can be max 12.5 V, but you can raise V and A by means of series/parallel assemblies
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Rupert:
    Thank you for your attention to the work of our Team,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ulrich Sackstedt:
    The Ecat generates the power necessary to the load(s) by the A.I. and chooses the parameters that reach the max efficiency,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Anonymous

    Dr Rossi,
    Can you explainn an example in the history of physics where the Clifford algebra has been useful ?

  • Ulrich Sackstedt

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    as there’re coming up questions about power regulating…how can the power be regulated as for the actual demand of the user. Or does the SKLep run continuously all the time at the same level?

  • Rupert

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    I just watched your interview of a week ago on Ecat World’s Youtube channel
    https://youtu.be/CZQ9Fac39Kc
    Quite interesting

  • Horst Dieter Preschel

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    my question 4. was crippled, I used angle brackets.

    4. If yes, is the voltage range less than 12V to more than 14.5V?

    Kind regards

    Horst Dieter Preschel

  • Andrea Rossi

    Horst Dieter Preschel:
    1- no, just the dimensions
    2- a ( I share your favorite, though, albeit we can’t be sure of it )
    3- the A.I. regulates it searching the higher possible efficiency
    4- see 3
    5- I suppose yes, to be experimented
    6- if there is a backup, yes
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Horst Dieter Preschel

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    I would like to thank you and your team for your excellent work and wish you continued success.

    I have been following your work for many years now and had placed my first pre-order for Ecats back in 2012.

    As you have now written, the volume of the Ecat Mini has been significantly reduced and the Ecat SKLep is now replaced by 10 Ecat Mini. Surely it will take some time until all changes will be published on ecat.com.

    But I still have a few questions, if I may:

    1. The size of the new Ecat Mini’s has changed, has the shape also changed?

    2. If I connect a larger number of Ecat Mini together, a failure of Ecats could be a little more difficult to diagnose. How can I tell which Ecat has failed?

    a. There is a visual indicator, LED or the like?
    b. The Ecat Mini can output status information to an external controller or app using Modbus or the like?
    c. I have to find out myself.
    d. The Ecat Mini does not fail, therefore unneccassary (my favorite)?

    3. Is the voltage on the Ecat Mini adjustable?

    a. by potentiometer?
    b. by command from an external controller or app?
    c. no.

    4. If yes, is the voltage range 14.5V?

    5. Does the Ecat Mini work if it is connected to a Mini UPS 230/12V which is connected to the grid and properly grounded?

    6. Does this scenario still work when the grid fails for some time.

    I hope I have not distracted you too much from your work.

    Kind regards

    Horst Dieter Preschel

  • Andrea Rossi

    Christian SCHOLL:
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • christian SCHOLL

    Dear Andrea,

    A super high-efficiency machine that produces power from vacuum in India

    https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/science/bengaluru-innovator-creates-super-high-efficiency-machine-that-produces-power-from-vacuum/articleshow/46832793.cms

    All the best for you and your team

    C.SCHOLL

  • Andrea Rossi

    P:
    Thank you for your proposal and suggestion. When we will ready to deliver the units, it will be possible to proceed with your proposal.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • P

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    If I were you, I would immediately test SKLep with three-phase solar inverter and then market this solution. There is a great need for this solution (three-phase) for heating and hot water. Many are open to installing solar installations and then panels can be replaced with SKLep units and then provide “solar” energy around the clock. With a three-phase solar inverter the surplus can also be sold to the network provider, which is a legal right here in Sweden.
    Sincerely
    /P

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