Introduction to quantum ring theory

by Wladimir Guglinski
Mechanical Engineer graduated in the Escola de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais- UFMG, (Brazil), 1973 author of the book Quantum Ring Theory-Foundations for Cold Fusion, published in 2006

1. The principal aim of Quantum Ring Theory

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started to work in March 2010.  Most of the people believe that the main aim of the experiments made in the LHC is to confirm the superstring theory, the existence of the Higgs boson, and the Suppersymmetry (Susy).

But the principal aim of the LHC experiments is actually another one:  the aim is to confirm the fundamental principles of Quantum Mechanics.
Because if LHC confirms superstrings, Higgs boson, and Susy, this means that all the principles of Quantum Mechanics are correct, since those three theories were developed from the concepts of Quantum Mechanics.

All the current theories, as Quantum Field Theory, Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Standard Model, etc., all they keep the fundamental principles of Quantum Mechanics.
Quantum Field Theory is the successor of Quantum Mechanics.  It was developed so that to  eliminate some inconsistencies of QM, in order to refine the theory.  But QFT keeps all the foundations of QM.

So, the confirmation of those three theories in the LHC will have for the theorists the following meaning: all the principles of QM are correct.  And this is actually the principal  objective why they built the LHC.

From the data collected along March and December 2010, the particles predicted in the Supersymmetry (Susy) would ougth to be already found.
But the LHC did find NOTHING of Susy predictions.

Some physicits already started to think that the LHC experiments will show the need of looking for a New Physics.
But the most physicists keep yet their hope to find evidences for the superstring, the Higgs boson, and Susy, when the LHC will work with its maximum power in 2014.

But the fact that they did not find evidences that confirm Susy along 2010 suggests that Supersymmetry actually does not exist.  And so, probably in 2014 they will find nothing again.

Therefore, probably in 2014 there will be a general consensus in the community of physicits:  the need of looking for a New Physics.

Nevertheless, having a consensus about the need of a New Physics, a fundamental question arises:

What sort of New Physics will it be?

Only two sort of New Physics are possible:

1- A New Physics that keeps all the fundamental principles of Quantum Mechanics, as the physicists did along the development of Quantum Field Theory.

2- A New Physics that rejects some principles of Quantum Mechanics, replacing them by new ones.  Then such New Theory will be a rival of Quantum Field Theory, since it will be a candidate to be a new successor of Quantum Mechanics, with some of its principles replaced by new ones.

Then let’s analyse the two sort of New Physics.

1- Keeping the principles of QM – Along 100 years, thousand of theorists developed several theories based on the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, which fundamental principles the scientific community now try to confirm in the LHC.
Then a question arises:  if they did not succeed to find a correct theory along 100 years under that way of keeping the fundamental principles of Quantum Mechanics, is it reasonable to hope that they will succeed to find it in the next years, by continuing to keep those fundamental principles of QM not confirmed in the LHC?

2-  Rejecting and replacing some principles of QM –  OK, we realized that it makes no sense to keep all the principles of QM, since after 100 years of attempts, the LHC disproved such an effort, showing that the structure of our universe is not like predicted in the prevailing theories. Then there is need to look for a New Physics with new principles.

But then three questions arise:
– what sort of new principles must be adopted?
– what are the principles of Quantum Mechanics that need to be rejected?
– what are the new principles which would have to replace those ones rejected in QM?

This is the question.
The quantum theorists have no idea about such matter.

The principal aim of Quantum Ring Theory is just to show what fundamental principles of Quantum Mechanics must be rejected, and what are the new principles that must replace them.

Quantum Ring Theory exhibits coherent arguments (sometimes they are irrefutable, like in the case of the Bohr successes, which require a new hydrogen atom different of that proposed in Quantum Mechanics), by showing what new principles must be incorporated in Quantum Mechanics, and why it’s indispensable to incorporate them.

2. The successes of Bohr

What is the meaning of the successes of Bohr ?

The successes of the Bohr theory are an indisputable proof on that something is wrong with the foundations of Quantum Mechanics.

The most physicists have not knowledge of the meaning of the Bohr successes, because the most of them prefer to ignore its meaning, since it is a very unpleasant subject, inasmuch it points out a serious flaw of QM.

The first physicist to understand the true meaning of Bohr successes was Schrödinger.  In an article intitled On a Remarkable Property of the Quantum-Orbits of a Single Electron, while commenting on a factor calculated from a Bohr orbit which gave an impressive result, he wrote:
“It is difficult to believe that this result is merely an accidental mathematical consequence of the quantum conditions, and has no deeper physical meaning”
Why did Schrödinger say such a thing?
And why was so hard to him to believe that the impressive result of Bohr theory could be a single coincidence ?
And what would he want to say with “deeper physical meaning”?

Let’s talk about.

3. The mystery of the centripetal acceleration

In the Bohr hydrogen atom, the electron emits photons when it jumps from a energy level to another one.
In his calculation, Bohr considered that in the instant when the photons are emitted the electron is submitted to a centripetal acceleration.

The results of the Bohr theory are very impressive.
Actually, from the mathematical probability it’s IMPOSSIBLE that the successes of his theory may be simply accidental.

The conclusion is obvious:  as the centripetal acceleration plays a role in the Bohr calculus, it’s unequivocal that the centripetal acceleration has some connection with the mechanism which emits photons in the atom.

Then here is the mystery:
In the Quantum Mechanics the electron into the electrosphere cannot be submitted to a centripetal acceleration.
It’s easy to understand why, since the electron cannot have trajectory within the electrosphere.  Indeed, magine an electron that moves between two energy levels, in the hydrogen atom.  Well, it is submitted to the attraction with the proton.  If the electron should be moving between two points in the electrosphere, it would have to be accelerated (or slowed), and it would have to emit a continuous spectrum, according to Maxwell theory.  But the experiments show that it does not happen.

So we have the following situation:

1- For Quantum Mechanics to be 100% correct, it’s indispensable that there is no centripetal acceleration on the electron.

2- Therefore, for QM to be 100% correct, the Bohr theory must be 100% wrong.  Otherwise, if Bohr theory is not 100% wrong, then Quantum Mechanics cannot be 100% correct.

3- The Bohr model cannot be 100% wrong, because it is impossible, according to the mathematical probability

4- From the item 3 above, one concludes that centripetal acceleration on the electron really exists within the atom

5- First conclusion:
Quantum Mechanics cannot be 100% correct.
To be correct, QM requires that Bohr theory must be 100% incorrect.  In another words: to be correct, QM requires that a centripetal acceleration on the electron cannot exist.  And since Bohr theory shows that it exists, then something is missing in Quantum Mechanics.

6- Second conclusion:
A satisfactory model of hydrogen atom must consider the existence of a centripetal acceleration on the electron.  A theory on the hydrogem atom (unable to explain the existence of the centripetal acceleration on the electron) cannot be 100% correct.

The situation nowadays

As Quantum Mechanics is incompatible with the Bohr model, the physicists concluded that Bohr successes can be only consequence of a fantastic coincidence.
And it couldn’t be on another way.
If they should admit that Bohr successes are not accidental, the physicists would have to admit that Quantum Mechanics cannot be 100% correct, since it does not admit the electron to be submitted to a centripetal acceleration.

But from the mathematical probability it’s IMPOSSIBLE that Bohr successes can be a mere coincidence, as claim the community of physicists.
That’s what bothered so much Schrödinger.
He noted that some mystery was hidden in the Bohr theory.
The successes of his theory might not be result of mere coincidence.

But as always happens in the history of science, is often more convenient to avoid some thorny issues. And physicists prefer to ignore the mystery surrounding the theory of Bohr and quantum mechanics.

Fundamental premise to be filled by a new theory on hydrogen model

From the above, we realize that there is an indispensable premise to be filled:
Any theory on the hydrogen atom, in which the electron is NOT submitted to a centripetal acceleration, CANNOT be 100% correct
Suppose that the hydrogen model of Quantum Ring Theory is wrong.
However, any other theory which proposes a new hydrogen model, to be acceptable, must fill this fundamental premise:  it must consider the existence of the centripetal acceleration on the electron, and to explain its existence.

Let’s then see how Quantum Ring Theory explains the existence of the centripetal acceleration on the electron, when the atom emits photons.

4. How is the photon emitted in Quantum Ring Theory?In QRT the photon is emitted through a resonance process.
In Quantum Mechanics the photon is also emitted from a resonance process.

Therefore, QRT and QM agree on this point:  the photons are emitted by a resonance process.
In this point Quantum Mechanics is correct.
And in this point Bohr’s theory is wrong, because in his theory the photon is NOT emitted by a resonance process.

Some obvious questions:

1- Since Bohr theory is not correct (because it does not consider that photons are emitted by resonance), and since in his theory the centripetal acceleration plays some role in the instant of the photon emission, then how can his theory get so many fantastic successes ?
You will understand it ahead, after get touch with the mechanism of photons emission proposed in QRT.

2- Since in Quantum Ring Theory the photon is emitted by resonance (as happens in Quantum Mechanics), and this one is the CORRECT mechanism of photons emission,  then how can the centripetal acceleration play some role in the photons emission?
The centripetal acceleration does NOT play ANY role in the photons emission.  This is the error of the Bohr theory.
But there is, YES, a centripetal acceleration on the electron, in the instant when the photon is emitted.  In spite of such centripetal acceleration does not play any role in the process of photons emissions, nevertheless the centripetal acceleration really exists on the electron, in the instant when the atom emits photons.  According to Quantum Mechanics, this is impossible.  This is the error of Quantum Mechanics.

We will see ahead how Quantum Ring Theory solves such mystery of the existence of the centripetal acceleration on the electron, a mystery that Quantum Mechanics cannot explain.

5. Quantum Ring Theory: why was it developed?

In the book Quantum Physics by Eisberg and Resnick, they state that from the basis of the current Nuclear Physics there is no way to explain some ordinary nuclear phenomena:
“Though we dispose nowadays of a sufficient complete assembly of information about the nuclear forces, we realize that they are too much complexes, not having been possible up to now to use this acknowledge for building an extensive theory of the nuclei. In other words, we cannot explain the whole properties of nuclei in function of the properties of the nuclear forces that actuate on their protons and neutrons”.

So, as from the current foundations of Nuclear Physics some ordinary nuclear phenomena cannot be explained, it is reasonable to expect that such current foundations of Nuclear Physics cannot explain cold fusion too.   After all, since it is missing something fundamental in the current Nuclear Physics, probably it is just such lack of the theory that is missing for explaining cold fusion.
So, was QRT developed for the explanation of cold fusion?

No. When I started to develop my theory in 1990, I did not know cold fusion. I decided to look for new theoretical models because I realized at that time that the current theories cannot explain several ordinary phenomena. So, QRT was developed for the explanation of ordinary phenomena not explained by current Atomic and Nuclear Physics.
I discovered the existence of cold fusion only in the end of 1998, by reading a paper by Mike Carrell in Frontier Perspectives.  And when in 1999 I started to read about cold fusion in the Infinite Energy Magazine, I started to realize that from those models of mine, (developed for the explanation of ordinary phenomena not explained by current Nuclear Physics) cold fusion occurrence should be possible.
One of the fundamental backgrounds of Quantum Ring Theory is the helical trajectory (zitterbewegung) of elementary particles. The zitterbewegung was discovered by Schrödinger, from his interpretation of the Dirac equation of the electron.
According to Quantum Ring Theory, the light is composed of photons constituted by a particle and its antiparticle, moving with helical trajectory.  These particle and antiparticle are formed by the constituents of the ether. The helical motion of the light was confirmed by an experiment published in Phys. Rev. Letters in July 2010, under the title “Unveiling a Truncated Optical Lattice Associated with a Triangular Aperture Using Light’s Orbital Angular Momentum”.

So, as an experiment confirmed the prediction of Quantum Ring Theory that photons have helical trajectory, there is a good reason to believe in the existence of the helical trajectory of the elementary particles in general.
But there are several other questions related to the helical trajectory.  For instance, from a hydrogen model composed by one electron that moves with helical trajectory in the electrosphere of the proton we can explain the existence of hydrinos, which is the subject of research by Randell Mills in BlackLight Power Inc.
Also, a question not explained by Quantum Mechanics: the motion of the electron  between energy levels in the electrosphere of atoms. An experiment made by the Nobel Laureate Hans Dehmelt showed that the electron moves between two points in the electrosphere of atoms.  But according to Quantum Mechanics the electron cannot move between two points in the electrosphere, and so the quantum theorists were obliged to deny Dehmelt experiment:  they claim that the atom is “dressed” in Dehmelt experiment, a sort of ad hoc solution adopted by quantum theorists every time when the theory is discredited by some experiment (as happened with cold fusion along 20 years).  In Quantum Ring Theory, thanks to its helical trajectory, the electron moves between the levels in the electrosphere, which is agree to the results of the Dehmelt experiment.

The helical trajectory is related to cold fusion too, because in QRT the neutron is composed by proton+electron.  Into the structure of the neutron the electron loses its helical trajectory, and the energy of the zitterbewegung is responsible for the excess energy that occurs in many cold fusion experiments, as for instance in the Conte-Pieralice experiment:  in their experiment the cathode was melt, a result not expected by them, since there was not (apparently) energy available for the electron to do it.
Quantum Ring Theory is rival of Quantum Field Theory.  The both theories were developed so that to eliminate some inconsistencies of Quantum Mechanics. So, they both are candidate to be a successor of QM.  The difference between QRT and QFT lies in their foundations:  while QFT keeps the foundations of QM, unlike QRT replaces some of them.

6. Helical trajectory within the hydrogen atom

As Quantum Mechanics, to be 100% correct, requires that Bohr theory must be 100% wrong, obviously the physicists have a paradox in their hand, because from the mathematical probability it’s impossible to consider Bohr’s successes as merely accidental.
The successes of Bohr theory are explained by considering the hydrogen model proposed in Quantum Ring Theory, which shows that the centripetal acceleration on the electron exists, but it is not like Bohr imagined. The centripetal acceleration appears on the electron due to its helical trajectory.
The centripetal acceleration on the electron does NOT play a role in the mechanism of the photon emission, like Bohr wrongly supposed.
However, the centripetal acceleration exists, like Quantum Ring Theory shows, and Quantum Mechanics cannot explain its existence.  Nowadays, when the solution proposed in QRT for the paradox of Bohr successes is exhibited for a quantum theorist, he tries to hide from everybody that Quantum Ring Theory has solved the mystery, because the community of academic physicists try to hide from the people such disagreeable fact:  that Quantum Mechanics has several unacceptable paradoxes.
The solution of the paradox, explained by the hydrogen atom of Quantum Ring Theory, is shown in the two figures ahead.

Look at the figure 2.
Obviously there are many other mechanisms in such hydrogen model proposed in Quantum Ring Theory.  For instance, there is a dilation in the space of the electrosphere of proton where the electron moves with helical trajectory.  Such density of the space is produced by the quantity of Dirac strings produced by the proton.

Thanks to such dilation, which changes the mass of the electron (with regard to the proton), the electron can move with constant speed into the electrosphere, when it jumps from two levels of energy (this explains the result obtained in the Dehmelt experiment), because the electron is submitted to two contrary and equal forces:  the force of attraction with the proton, and a force of repulsion due to the dilation of the space.  So, its null the resultant of forces on the electron, when it moves radially within the electrosphere.

Also, there is a mechanism which explains why the electron jumps from no consecutive levels.

But let’s see why the centripetal acceleration do exists, as shown in the figure 2.
The atom emits photons when the distance REM (radius of emission) gets resonance with the density of Dirac strings into the elecrosphere (when it moves in radial direction into the electrosphere, the electron crosses such strings).

Looking at the figure 2, we see that the electron is submitted to a centripetal acceleration due to its helical trajectory.  Such centripetal acceleration does not play any role in the resonance between the electron and the Dirac strings (of the proton).  But due to a coincidence, the radius of the electron’s helical trajectory is the same radius considered by Bohr in his calculus.  Other coincidence is the fact that the force on the electron due to its helical trajectory is equal the force of attraction proton-electron, considered by Bohr.  The radius of Bohr is also equal the radius of the electron’s orbit in the helical trajectory.
Thanks to this series of coincidences, the Bohr theory is able to yield those fantastic successes, in spite of his model is wrong.

7. The accordion effect

Let’s now speak a little about the new nuclear model proposed in QRT, named Hexagonal Floors Model.
Look at figure 3. In the center of the nuclei there is a nucleon 2He4.  It produces gravitational Dirac strings (they are a flux of gravitons). They form the principal field of the nuclei. Each string captures protons, or neutrons, or deuterions.  The figure ahead shows a nucleus 8O16, with its central 2He4 which forms the Dirac strings f1 , f2 , f3 , f4,  f5, f6 , and each one of those strings capture one deuterium.  In the oxygen nuclei there is one complete hexagonal floor.
The existence of the Dirac strings is corroborated by an experiment published in the end of 2009:

See link

Of course the real hexagonal floor existing in Nature is not flat as shown in the figure.  Due to repulsions between the deuterium nucleons, there is an oscillatory motion of them with regard to the central 2He4.

In the figure 3, there are another Dirac strings: in blue collor.  They form a Coulombic field, which is induced by the rotation of the principal field.  It is named secondary field.  Its blue strings are not gravitational.  They are formed by a flux of electric particles of the ether.

The figure 4 shows a nucleus with 7 complete hexagonal floors.  The distance between the hexagonal floors, indicated by Dd, has contraction and expansion, a phenomenon named Accordion Effect, because the hexagonal floors behave like if they should be the bellows of an accordion.

The Accordion Effect explains a property of some nuclei, like the U238.  It has 92 protons (pair) and 146 neutrons (also pair).  The U238 changes its shape, from a ellipsoid in the horizontal to an ellipsoid in the vertical, and the changing in the diameter is 30% .  There is no way to explain such big changing through the models of current Nuclear Physics, because having a number pair of protons (92) and a number pair of neutrons (146) the nucleus has a symmetry, and its expansion-contraction would have to occur in all the radial directions (according to Nuclear Physics).  So, the contraction-expansion of the U238 ought to be spherical, according to Nuclear Physics, and not elliptical as the experiments show.  If the distribution of protons and neutrons should be like predicted in current Nuclear Physics, the growth of the radius of the 92U238 ought to be in all directions, and not in one preferential direction, as really happens.
Looking at the nuclear model proposed in QRT, with several hexagonal floors, we realize that its contraction-expansion must occur in a preferential direction, like happens with the U238.
The distribution of nucleons in the nuclear model of QRT is AXIAL (it has a preferential direction, consequence of the fact that protons and neutrons are captured by the Dirac strings produced by the central 2He4).
The distribution of nucleons in the nuclear models of Nuclear Physics is RADIAL (that’s why those models are unable to explain that dilation of the 92U238).

It’s reasonable to suppose that such accordion-effect can influence in the cold fusion reactions, by considering a resonance between the contraction-expansion of the distance Dd of some nuclei (as the Pd in the lattice) and the oscillations of deuterium nuclei (of the heavy water used in the electrolityc cell) due to the zero-point energy, when the oscillation of the Pd nuclei are aligned with the oscillation of deuterium nucleons due to the zero point energy.  Such alignment can be get, for instance, with an external magnetic field applied externally to the vessel.  Obviously a suitable laser can help the resonance, as occurred in the Lets-Cravens experiment, since the frequency of the laser can enter in resonance with the oscillation of the Pd nuclei and deuterium nucleons.

As said, the secondary field of nuclei is responsible for the Coulombic repulsions.  So, the fusion of two nuclei depends on the energy enough to pierce the two secondary fields of the two nuclei.  This is what occurs in hot fusion.

But in cold fusion probably there is no need to pierce the secondary field.  That’s because  in the secondary field there is a lack, as shown in the figure 5.  This “hole” is consequence of the way in which the secondary field is formed:  it is induced by the principal field, and it’s impossible a formation of the Dirac strings without having a hole.
This “hole” in the secondary fields of nuclei explains a paradox in Nuclear Physics: an alfa particle 2He4 can leave the 92U238 with energy 4MeV, in spite of the energy required for trespass the Coulombic barrier is 8MeV (100% stronger than 4MeV).  They call it tunneling effect.  The physicists wrongly believe that Gamow had explained the paradox of 92U328.  However the Gamow explanation introduces another unacceptable paradox, as shown in Quantum Ring Theory.  And so he solved a paradox by introducing another unacceptable paradox.
Besides, the tunneling effect is able to make a particle to trespass a barrier which energy is 30% , 40 % or at maximum 50% stronger then the energy of the particle.  But a barrier 100% stronger cannot be crossed, as happens in the 92U238.  The paradox of 2He4 emission by the 92U238 must to be explained by considering the hole in the secondary field of the 92U238 nuclei, as considered in Quantum Ring Theory.

Look at the figure 3 again.  As the Dirac strings are formed by gravitons, then such strings would have to attract one each other, and they could not have the distribution shown in the figure 3.  Instead of being distributed symmetrically about the central 2He4, the strings should have to be concentrated all them in one side.
In QRT it’s proposed that the ether is filled by electric particles e(+) and e(-), magnetic particles m(+) and m(-), and gravitational particles g(+) and g(-).  But there are also REPULSIVE gravitational particles G(+) and G(-), and they are responsible for the symmetrical distribution of the Dirac strings in the electrosphere of the proton, since they avoid that two gravitational Dirac strings attract one each other.

So, according to Quantum Ring Theory, into the hydrogen atom (and any atom) there are repulsive gravitons, and they cause the expansion of the proton’s electrosphere.

Such repulsive gravity exists within the structure of the photon too.  It explains why the particle and the antiparticle into the photon’s structure do not annihilate one each other.
The figure bellow shows the particle and antiparticle surrounded by repulsive gravitational particles of the ether.  The particle and antiparticle move with helical trajectory, in contrary directions.

8. The evolution of Physics

As one may realize, these strange conditions into the hydrogen atom, as the helical trajectory of the electron, as the expansion of the proton and electron electrospheres, as the changing of the electron’s inertia with regard to the proton, and as the repulsive gravity, all together these strange conditions are responsible for an exotic behavior of the atom.  That’s why the physicists did never understand its paradoxical behavior.

In October 2008 the Brazillian publishing house Editora Bodigaya published my book entitled “A Evolução da Mecânica Quântica – o duelo Schrödinger versus Heisenberg”.  The Telesio Galilei Academy of Science intended to publish it in Europe, in 2009, having a partnership with a publishing house in London.  It would be published with the title “The Missed U-Tur – the duel Schrödinger versus Heisenberg”.  Unfortunatelly the publishing house faced troubles due to the financial crisis in 2008, and closed its doors, so  the book was not published in Europe.

The book reports to the lay man the duel between Schrödinger and Heisenberg, concerning the helical trajectory (a duel which the academicians hide from everybody, and even the most physicists do not know about such duel).  Ahead is a stretch of the book, where I speak about the meaning of the Schrödinger Equation, connected to the true mechanisms of the atom’s working, discovered by me in 2004:

After discovering the mechanisms and laws that rule the behavior of electrons that move in helical trajectories in the hydrogen atom, I started to think about finding the mathematical equation that describes this model.  This wasn’t an easy task, because it involved complex phenomena, such as the contraction of the ether, the zoom-effect, and having two potentials that attract the electron, one being the proton and the other being the center of the helical trajectory.  Finally, I realized that the equation describing this complex motion of the electron in the hydrogen atom has been found already; it is the Schrödinger equation.
As starting point, Schrödinger gained inspiration from the equation Bohr obtained for the energy levels of the hydrogen atom.  Without knowing the true mechanism, shown here, by which the electron interacts with the proton in the hydrogen atom, he succeeded in finding the equation that describes the electron’s behavior. Schrödinger started from some properties inherent to the helical trajectory, such as the wave-particle duality expressed by the de Broglie equation λ=h/p, and, by speculating on the form of the differential equation that the wave should have, he arrived at the final form of his famous equation, which gives the energy levels of an atom when it emits photons.  The Schrödinger equation involves the use of imaginary numbers.  An imaginary number is the square root of a negative number and, therefore, the square of an imaginary number is a negative number.  This use of an imaginary number in Schrödinger’s equation reflects the complexity of the mechanisms to which the electron is subject in the hydrogen atom:  the contraction of the space, the zoom-effect, the loss of inertia when the electron moves away from the proton, etc.  Actually, one has to be amazed by the path followed to achieve this scientific discovery, since Schrödinger discovered his equation in the 1930’s and the true meaning of his equation, which connects his equation to physical reality, was discovered only in 2004.

Other book of mine that Telesio Galilei Academy of Science intended to publish in 2009 in Europe was “The Evolution of Physics- the duel Newton versus Descartes”. In this book it’s shown that the evolution of Physics was occurred switching two methods of investigation:  one used by Descartes, and other used by Newton.  Sometimes the Newton method failed, and was replaced by the method of Descartes. For instance, the method used by Bohr, when he discovered his hydrogen model, was the method used by Descartes.  Before Bohr, the physicist Voight tried to use the Newtonian method for the discovery of  a model of atom, and the Newtonian method used by he has failed. So, the Newtonian method was not efficient for the discovery of the laws discovered later by Bohr.  However, the success of Bohr was partial, that is, after an initial success of the Descartes method used by Bohr, the method failed, because Bohr model was not correct. He discovered some correct laws, but not all the correct laws. Then Schrödinger applied the Newtonian method again, and made some corrections in the Bohr model. However, Schrödinger also failed, because he did not discovered all the correct laws into the atom, and therefore the Newtonian method has failed again with Schrödinger. Finally, the Descartes method was used again in the development of Quantum Ring Theory, and the true laws were finally discovered.
So, the evolution of Physics occurs by the alternation of the Descartes and Newton methods, and we are now in a stage that requires the use of the Newtonian method to be applied again on the discoveries proposed in Quantum Ring Theory, which were found thanks to the use of the Descartes method.  This new stage is required because the Newtonian method, used by the theorists along the 20th Century, has failed.  The Newtonian method used in the 20th Century was successful for the development of technology, but the method has failed for the discovery of the true laws of Nature.
Magnetic motors and cold fusion are evidence of the failure of Newton’s method.
Here is a stretch of the book:

Let us see the stages followed in the development of the model of atom.

Stage 1 – First Voigt failed when applying the Newtonian method.
Stage 2 – After that Bohr was succeeded partially by applying the cartesian method.  In this way, he discovered some fundamental mechanisms of the atom, like the emission of photons when the electron changes from one orbit to another.  The cartesian method failed but opened a new path for the application of the Newtonian method starting from Bohr’s discoveries.
Stage 3 – Schrödinger applied the Newtonian method again.  He obtained a partial success and the method of Newton failed again, as shown by the successes of Bohr and the Dehmelt experiment.

What comes later must be anticipated by the reader.  For achieving total success, there are two stages missing needed for concluding the process.

Stage 4 – Re-apply the cartesian method in order to discover what is missing in Quantum Mechanics, in a process similar to that used by Bohr.
Stage 5 – Re-apply the Newtonian method after stage 4, by applying the mathematical formalism for confirming the discoveries made in stage 4.

At the present moment, we are in stage 4.  What is missing in Quantum Mechanics is shown in the new model of the atom proposed in Quantum Ring Theory.  It is still missing stage 5.

The hydrogen model of QRT explains several paradoxes of QM.  For instance, according to the Schrödinger Equation, when the electron moves in the fundamental status within the hydrogen atom, its orbit is purely radial.  This means that the electron trespasses directly through into the nucleus (proton) and the oscillation occurs in any direction in space.  Obviously such motion is very strange, since the electron passes into the proton’s body, which is an absurd.

But look at the figure 6 what happens, by considering the model where the electron moves with helical trajectory about the proton, in the fundamental status:

  • The real motion into the atom: the electron (green) moves about the proton with helical trajectory traveling the trajectory 1-2-3-4-5—6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17
  • The interpretation of the motion according to the Schrödinger Equation: such a motion looks like if the electron should be traveling the trajectory:
    (1-2) => (16-17)
    so, apparently , trespassing into the proton (the trajectory in red).

9. Cold fusion requires a New Physics

The book “Quantum Ring Theory-Foundations for Cold Fusion” was published in 2006.  After its publication, the cold fusion researchers neglected the theory, because of the strategy explained ahead.
Since 1989 when it was announced by Fleischmmann and Pons, the cold fusion researchers have along the years hoped to get funds from the governments of several countries, so that to continue the development of the cold fusion technology. But a cold fusion reaction is not possible according to the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, and so a cold fusion technology would require a New Physics for its development.  It would be so hard to get funds for developing a technology impossible to occur (according to the current theories), which would require a New Physics.  Then the cold fusion researchers replaced the name “cold fusion” by LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions), and started to claim that:
a)  it actually was not cold fusion
b) there was no need of a New Physics for its explanation

Well, the cold fusion technology developed by Eng. Andrea A. Rossi and Professor Sergio Focardi is ready, and the cold fusion reactors are ready to be sold.  They don’t need funds from the governments for the development of the technology.  Therefore there is no need to avoid the correct name for the phenomenon, which is cold fusion, because there are two facts that show that it is indeed a fusion:  the transmutation of elements, and the emission of neutrons above the background of neutrons.  And since it occurs under conditions of room pressure and low temperature, then of course it is cold fusion.

Besides, the experiments in the LHC are already showing that something is wrong with the current theories (from the data collected in 2010, the Supersymmetry would have to be confirmed, but the experiments have found nothing).  Some physicists already are saying that LHC will show the need of a New Physics.  And so, if there is need of a New Physics for the LHC, then why not a New Physics for explaining cold fusion too?

Quantum Ring Theory is a New Physics.  And probably the principles proposed in the theory are those ones which will bring the explanation for cold fusion.
Perhaps the foundations proposed in Quantum Ring Theory are wrong, and then another New Physics must be found.

Nevertheless, no matter what is the New Physics that will be found (in the hypothesis that QRT is wrong), such New Physics will have to satisfy some conditions already shown in QRT.  For instance, the new hydrogen model of the New Physics must be able to explain the successes of Bohr (and the existence of the centripetal acceleration on the electron).
A New Physics cannot live together with paradoxes again, as happened along the 20th Century.

Some experiments are suggesting that Quantum Ring Theory is correct.  We can mention for instance the Dehmelt experiment, the Borghi and Conte-Pierlice experiments, and that recent experiment which confirmed the helical trajectory of the photon, published in July-2010.

There are many other experiments suggesting that QRT is right.  Of course there is need a lot of more strong evidences so that to confirm the theory. But what will decide either the theory is correct, or wrong, is the investigation and the submission of its models to experiments.

by Wladimir Guglinski

The figure 4 shows a nucleus with 7 complete hexagonal floors. The distance between the hexagonal floors, indicated by Dd, has contraction and expansion, a phenomenon named Accordion Effect, because the hexagonal floors behave like if they should be the bellows of an accordion.

The Accordion Effect explains a property of some nuclei, like the U238. It has 92 protons (pair) and 146 neutrons (also pair). The U238 changes its shape, from a ellipsoid in the horizontal to an ellipsoid in the vertical, and the changing in the diameter is 30% . There is no way to explain such big changing through the models of current Nuclear Physics, because having a number pair of protons (92) and a number pair of neutrons (146) the nucleus has a symmetry, and its expansion-contraction would have to occur in all the radial directions (according to Nuclear Physics). So, the contraction-expansion of the U238 ought to be spherical, according to Nuclear Physics, and not elliptical as the experiments show. If the distribution of protons and neutrons should be like predicted in current Nuclear Physics, the growth of the radius of the 92U238 ought to be in all directions, and not in one preferential direction, as really happens.

Looking at the nuclear model proposed in QRT, with several hexagonal floors, we realize that its contraction-expansion must occur in a preferential direction, like happens with the U238.

59 comments to Introduction to quantum ring theory

  • Andrea Rossi

    Thank you for your attention to our work,
    Warm Regards,

  • Jorge

    Dr Rossi,
    Thank you for publishing
    I understood the importance of the E-Cat not only as a revolutionary energy generator, but also as a paradigma for an important contribution to physics.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Khalif Foeter:
    Thank you for your insight. I suppose it is addressed to the Author of “Introduction to Quantum Ring Theory”.
    Warm Regards,

  • Khalif Foster

    HI, want to let ya know that gravity is impossible by mass that produces gravity itself, so the bigger mass, the bigger gravity that holds us; the smaller mass, the smaller gravity. But that means small and big mass does have gravity that holds small mass within a big mass. Each different position of mass is a battle if big to small, except the same level of two, so it cancels out gravity. But what about the middle of mass, the empty space, there is energy in empty space. So, it is same as magnet that produces gravity which it is a pressure field from Aether, so it can’t be all elements because within element there is a process like magnet with electricity, which both combine to density, well, magnet as energy as potential energy, and electricity as mass-energy, like current. Not all mass is a gravity that pulls or push unless it is enough magnet-density to produce the felt of energy which it is pushed or pull.

    So, Aether is low density, mass is high density, depends the density of mass, if high enough, then pressure from Aether outward from a high density of mass can’t be felt, unless it is a resonate, the closest to Aether, zero density or very low density.

    Like a feather is a density of solid, an air is a density of a gas, so solid is higher density than gas. Yet air can push and repel air, because that high density is very close to low density, and that low density is many in space that causes a push or pulls to higher density. Everywhere that meets specific place.

    So, the gravity that can’t hold the air because it is a low density of gravity from earth that pull gravity to holds us, so air should except gravity since it is weaker in further distance from a surface of the earth, that match law of science. Not opposite. So, there must be a dome that holds air that matches the high density of energy which can be felt, which if a magnet is big enough, we can feel the pressure, right. The movies and assume the real life of space that you feel is fake from NASA and do not match the reality of real science, which you provide better science than mainstream science, which they ignore and lie. If lie about science, so can lie about physical reality.

    So, it is not gravity, but pressure, but pressure can be felt outward at the macro level if it is a resonate, a low density that can go thru a tunnel to macro level to high density and still can be felt. So, it has to be closest or at exactly in balance that matches law of balance, or Newton’s law, the 3rd law for motion. I am sure ya think gravity is a mistake in your mind when you thought about it since not make sense? I got the idea from Flat Earth, so it expands science in my mind, so science expands in your mind that you create QRT that is better than mainstream QT. It is about density, heat means higher density as there is more current; cold means lower density as there is more potential, well, there is a ratio of potential and mass-energy. So, there are two things: low density to high density. So, not need gravity, it is just electricity and aether in a ratio and balance for everything.

    Plus Gravity does depend on mass that holds us, so if there is no big gravity, then we float up, so the low density can pull up higher density, which it is illogical since high density is stronger than low density. So, the magnet that produces gravity-like an energy that holds us, so it is on a side that is high density that pulls Aether from low density, as it travels as it is still a low density, without canceling out from high density that reduces Aether, like a current. A tunnel of low density with a side that is high density, the mass. It does match a ring, the center is empty, and the outer ring is a mass. I am sure inner edge of the ring to outer edge of the ring is important for energy and mass. I am sure everything in an atom is important for what makes an atom. So, I guess Aether can be felt if it is high density from a magnet, or can’t because low density will go thru high density. Ya can explain in a book if ya did for how pressure-energy that is invisible that can cause push and pull the mass that is visible. Since mass is higher density as we can see and weight, to invisible which has no weight and can’t be see-thru high degree microscope.

    So, can update so not include gravity, but pressure and they are looking for gravity like gravity is a mass, but the magnet that produces energy that pressures you, so it is not a mass, but aether. So, mainstream rejects Aether to the mass, for technology and everything.

    So, can ya explain on website what is different between centripetal acceleration and Helical trajectory that is an emission from an electron as photon. There is two dynamic motion, but both are different right, so Helical is expanding in vertical in series as it goes horizontal motion. So, it is a series of motion. Two motion, forward motion from a source that pushes, and Aether motion that pushes upward vertical, as Aether get higher in density so it pushes further in vertical at each series of horizontal motion. So, where Helical come from? Does it come from motion of source that is moving, so the forward motion from source will turn as a wave or there is an expand and contract of source so the mass narrow and expand. Can put a picture for centripetal acceleration, like ya did for Helical trajectory.

    I was thinking there is two source of helical motion that is if source is moving up and down, so forward motion from source move up and down as a wave. Or if source as static is contracting, then to starting diameter, so not expanding, so photons do create a wave. But I might be wrong because it is the wrong source, so can’t be an electron that contract to starting diameter, then contract again, so is there any source in an atom that does that?? Any source in an atom that can move up and down? It is just static, if there is motion, then the motion is union of all source within an atom, so they all move in a union, so there is no visual wave or anything, but horizontal, because it is smooth. Or curve if all source within atom moves in a curve.

    You mention anti-particle, but it is not anti, but aether particle since it is from Aether as energy that causes push and pulls that cause visual motion of mass to move. Mass particle vs. Aether particle. So, Anti is negative mass, from the aether, so not an imaginary number, but a negative real number. It would be better than imaginary as not real unless you are God that image can be caused to be real.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Adolf Schumpeter:
    Now it’s 08.50 a.m. of Sunday July 19th.
    The 1MW E-Cat is stable with no major problems. The Hot Cat is out of service for important modifications that, I think, will upgrade the performance substantially.
    Warm Regards

  • Adolf Schumpeter

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Is the 1MW E-Cat going well today, yes?
    And the hot Cat?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Valeria Treiber:
    Yes, we introduced substantial modifications, thanks to the experiment of the ITP.
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jack Sgroi:
    We are studying it, but what we have understood so far, on the base of the proposals we received, is that the costs are very high and cannot compete with a mass industrial production by means of robotized lines. The pay back time, respect a traditional production system, is unacceptable. What we think is that this technology, so far, is useful for the rapid construction of prototypes in the R&D environment. This consideration, obviously, is valid for apparatuses similar to the E-Cat, made by metals and with a complex structure. We are still studying and collecting data, though. This opinion is not final.
    Warm Regards,

  • Jack Sgroi

    Dr Rossi:
    Any development regarding the 3D Printing aplication for the manufacturing of the E-Cats?

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