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Cold nuclear fusion

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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Abstract
Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

PACS.: 25.45 – deuterium induced reactions
Submitted to Physics of Atomic Nuclei/Yadernaya Fizika in Russian

Introduction
Experiments of Fleischmann and Pons made about 20 years ago [1], raised the question about the possibility of nuclear DD fusion at room temperature. Conflicting results of numerous experiments that followed, dampened the initial euphoria, and the scientific community quickly came to common belief, that the results of [1] are erroneous. One of the convincing arguments of skeptics was the lack in these experiments of evidence of nuclear decay products. It was assumed that “if there are no neutrons, therefore is no fusion.” However, quite a large international group of physicists, currently a total of about 100-150 people, continues to work in this direction. To date, these enthusiasts have accumulated considerable experience in the field. The leading group of physicists working in this direction, in our opinion, is the group led by Dr. M. McKubre [2]. Interesting results were also obtained in the group of Dr. Y. Arata [3]. Despite some setbacks with the repeatability of results, these researchers still believe in the existence of the effect of cold fusion, even though they do not fully understand its nature.  Some time ago we proposed a possible mechanism to explain the results of cold fusion of deuterium [4]. This work considered a possible mechanism of acceleration of deuterium contaminant atoms in the crystals through the interaction of atoms with long-wavelength lattice vibrations in deformed parts of the crystal. Estimates have shown that even if a very small portion of the impurity atoms (~105) get involved in this process and acquires a few keV energy, this will be sufficient to describe the energy released in experiments [2].  This work also hypothesized that the lifetime of the intermediate nucleus increases with decreasing energy of its excitation, so that so-called “radiation-less cooling” of the excited nucleus becomes possible. In [5], we set out a more detailed examination of the process.  Quite recently, a sharp increase of the probability of fusion of various elements was found in accelerator experiments for the cases when the target particles are either imbedded in a metal crystal or are a part of the conducting crystal. These experiments compel us to look afresh on the problem of cold fusion.

Recent experiments on fusion of elements on accelerators
For atom-atom collisions the expression of the probability of penetration through a Coulomb barrier for bare nuclei should be modified, because atomic electrons screen the repulsion effect of nuclear charge. Such a modification for the isolated atom collisions has been performed in H.J. Assenbaum and others [6] using static Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The experimental results that shed further light on this problem were obtained in relatively recent works C. Rolfs [7] and K. Czerski [8]. Review of earlier studies on this subject is contained in the work of L. Bogdanova [9]. In these studies a somewhat unusual phenomenon was observed: the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of elements depend strongly on the physical state of the matter in which these processes are taking place. Figure 1 (left) shows the experimental data [8], demonstrating the dependence of the astrophysical factor S(E) for the fusion of elements of sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of the matter that contains the target nucleus 7Li. The same figure (right) presents similar data [7] for the DD reaction, when the target nucleus was embedded in a zirconium crystal. It must be noted that the physical nature of the phenomenon of increasing cross synthesis of elements in the case where this process occurs in the conductor crystal lattice is still not completely clear.

Figure 1. Up – experimental data [8], showing the energy dependence of the S-factor for sub-threshold nuclear reaction on the aggregate state of matter that contains the nucleus 7Li.  Down – the similar data [7] for the reaction of DD, when the target nucleus is placed in a crystal of zirconium. The data are well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV.

The phenomenon is apparently due to the strong anisotropy of the electrical fields of the crystal lattice in the presence of free conduction electrons. Data for zirconium crystals for the DD reactions can be well described by the introduction of the screening potential of about 300 eV. It is natural to assume that the corresponding distance between of two atoms of deuterium in these circumstances is less than the molecular size of deuterium. In the case of the screening potential of 300 eV, the distance of convergence of deuterium atoms is ~510ˆ12 m, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the size of a molecule of deuterium, where the screening potential is 27 eV. As it turned out, the reaction rate for DD fusion in these conditions is quite sufficient to describe the experimental results of McKubre and others [2]. Below we present the calculation of the rate process similar to the mu-catalysis where, instead of the exchange interaction by the muon, the factor of bringing together two deuterons is the effect of conduction electrons and the lattice of the crystal.

Calculation of the DD fusion rate for “Metal-Crystal” catalysis
The expression for the cross section of synthesis in the collision of two nuclei can be written as

where for the DD fusion

Here the energy E is shown in keV in the center of mass. S(E) astrophysical factor (at low energies it can be considered constant), the factor 1/E reflects de Broglie dependence of cross section on energy. The main energy dependence of the fusion is contained in an expression

that determines the probability of penetration of the deuteron through the Coulomb barrier. From the above expressions, it is evident that in the case of DD collisions and in the case of DDμcatalysis, the physics of the processes is the same. We use this fact to determine the probability of DD fusion in the case of the “metal-crystalline” DD-catalysis.  In the case of DDμ- catalysis the size of the muon deuterium molecules (ion+) is ~5×10ˆ13m. Deuterium nuclei approach such a distance at a kinetic energy ~3 keV. Using the expression (1), we found that the ratio of σ(3.0 keV)/σ(0.3 keV) = 1.05×10ˆ16. It should be noted that for the free deuterium molecule this ratio [ σ(3.0keV)/σ(0.03keV)] is about 10ˆ73.  Experimental estimations of the fusion rate for the (DDμ)+ case presented in the paper by Hale [10]:

Thus, we obtain for the “metal-crystalline” catalysis DD fusion rate (for zirconium case):

Is this enough to explain the experiments on cold fusion? We suppose that a screening potential for palladium is about the same as for zirconium. 1 cmˆ3 (12.6 g) of palladium contains 6.0210ˆ23(12.6/106.4) = 0.710ˆ23 atoms. Fraction of crystalline cells with dual (or more) the number of deuterium atoms at a ratio of D: Pd ~1:1 is the case in the experiments [2] ~0.25 (e.g., for Poisson distribution). Crystal cell containing deuterium atoms 0 or 1, in the sense of a fusion reaction, we consider as “passive”. Thus, the number of “active” deuterium cells in 1 cmˆ3 of palladium is equal to 1.810ˆ22. In this case, in a 1 cmˆ3 of palladium the reaction rate will be

this corresponds to the energy release of about 3 kW. This is quite sufficient to explain the results of McKubre group [2]. Most promising version for practical applications would be Platinum (Pt) crystals, where the screening potential for d(d,p)t fusion at room temperature is about 675 eV [11]. In this case, DD fusion rate would be:

The problem of “nonradiative” release of nuclear fusion energy
As we have already noted, the virtual absence of conventional nuclear decay products of the compound nucleus was widely regarded as one of the paradoxes of DD fusion with the formation of 4He in the experiments [2]. We proposed the explanation of this paradox in [4]. We believe that after penetration through the Coulomb barrier at low energies and the materialization of the two deuterons in a potential well, these deuterons retain their identity for some time. This time defines the frequency of further nuclear reactions. Figure 2 schematically illustrates the mechanism of this process. After penetration into the compound nucleus at a very low energy, the deuterons happen to be in a quasi-stabile state seating in the opposite potential wells. In principle, this system is a dual “electromagnetic-nuclear” oscillator. In this oscillator the total kinetic energy of the deuteron turns into potential energy of the oscillator, and vice versa. In the case of very low-energy, the amplitude of oscillations is small, and the reactions with nucleon exchange are suppressed.

Fig. 2. Schematic illustration of the mechanism of the nuclear decay frequency dependence on the compound nucleus 4He* excitation energy for the merging deuterons is presented. The diagram illustrates the shape of the potential well of the compound nucleus. The edges of the potential well are defined by the strong interaction, the dependence at short distances  Coulomb repulsion.

The lifetime of the excited 4He* nucleus can be considered in the formalism of the usual radioactive decay. In this case,


Here ν is the decay frequency, i.e., the reciprocal of the decay time τ. According to our hypothesis, the decay rate is a function of excitation energy of the compound nucleus E. Approximating with the first two terms of the polynomial expansion, we have:

Here ν° is the decay frequency at asymptotically low excitation energy. According to quantum-mechanical considerations, the wave functions of deuterons do not completely disappear with decreasing energy, as illustrated by the introduction of the term ν°. The second term of the expansion describes the linear dependence of the frequency decay on the excitation energy. The characteristic nuclear frequency is usually about 10ˆ22  sˆ-1. In fusion reaction D+D4He there is a broad resonance at an energy around 8 MeV. Simple estimates by the width of the resonance and the uncertainty relation gives a lifetime of the intermediate state of about 0.810ˆ22 s. The “nuclear” reaction rate falls approximately linearly with decreasing energy. Apparently, a group of McKubre [2] operates in an effective energy range below 2 keV in the c.m.s. Thus, in these experiments, the excitation energy is at least 4×10ˆ3 times less than in the resonance region. We assume that the rate of nuclear decay is that many times smaller. The corresponding lifetime is less than 0.3×10ˆ18 s. This fall in the nuclear reaction rate has little effect on the ratio of output decay channels of the compound nucleus, but down to a certain limit. This limit is about 6 keV. A compound nucleus at this energy is no longer an isolated system, since virtual photons from the 4He* can reach to the nearest electron and carry the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The total angular momentum carried by the virtual photons can be zero, so this process is not prohibited. For the distance to the nearest electron, we chose the radius of the electrons in the helium atom (3.1×10ˆ11 m). From the uncertainty relations, duration of this process is about 10ˆ-19 seconds. In the case of “metal-crystalline” catalysis the distance to the nearest electrons can be significantly less and the process of dissipation of energy will go faster. It is assumed that after an exchange of multiple virtual photons with the electrons of the environment the relatively small excitation energy of compound nucleus 4He* vanishes, and the frequency of the compound nucleus decaying with the emission of nucleons will be determined only by the term ν°. For convenience, we assume that this value is no more than 10ˆ12-10ˆ14 per second. In this case, the serial exchange of virtual photons with the electrons of the environment in a time of about 10ˆ-16 will lead to the loss of ~4 MeV from the compound nucleus (after which decays with emission of nucleons are energetically forbidden), and then additional exchange will lead to the loss of all of the free energy of the compound nucleus (24 MeV) and finally the nucleus will be in the 4He ground state.  The energy dissipation mechanism of the compound nucleus 4He* with virtual photons, discussed above, naturally raises the question of the electromagnetic-nuclear structure of the excited compound nucleus.

Fig. 3. Possible energy diagram of the excited 4He* nucleus is presented.

Figure 3 represents a possible energy structure of the excited 4He* nucleus and changes of its spatial configuration in the process of releasing of excitation energy. Investigation of this process might be useful to study the quark-gluon dynamics and the structure of the nucleus.

Discussion
Perhaps, in this long-standing history of cold fusion, finally the mystery of this curious and enigmatic phenomenon is gradually being opened. Besides possible benefits that the practical application of this discovery will bring, the scientific community should take into account the sociological lessons that we have gained during such a long ordeal of rejection of this brilliant, though largely accidental, scientific discovery. We would like to express the special appreciation to the scientists that actively resisted the negative verdict imposed about twenty years ago on this topic by the vast majority of nuclear physicists.

Acknowledgements
The author thanks Prof. S.B. Dabagov, Dr. M. McKubre, Dr. F. Tanzela, Dr. V.A. Kuzmin, Prof. L.N. Bogdanova and Prof. T.V. Tetereva for help and valuable discussions. The author is grateful to Prof. V.G. Kadyshevsky, Prof. V.A. Rubakov, Prof. S.S. Gershtein, Prof. V.V. Belyaev, Prof. N.E. Tyurin, Prof. V.L. Aksenov, Prof. V.M. Samsonov, Prof. I.M. Gramenitsky, Prof. A.G. Olshevsky, Prof. V.G. Baryshevsky for their help and useful advice. I am grateful to Dr. VM. Golovatyuk, Prof. M.D. Bavizhev, Dr. N.I. Zimin, Prof. A.M. Taratin for their continued support. I am also grateful to Prof. A. Tollestrup, Prof. U. Amaldi, Prof. W. Scandale, Prof. A. Seiden, Prof. R. Carrigan, Prof. A. Korol, Prof. J. Hauptmann, Prof. V. Guidi, Prof. F. Sauli, Prof. G. Mitselmakher, Prof. A. Takahashi, and Prof. X. Artru for stimulating feedback. Continued support in this process was provided with my colleagues and the leadership of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and I am especially grateful to Prof. R. Parkey, Prof. N. Rofsky, Prof. J. Anderson and Prof. G. Arbique. I express special thanks to my wife, N.A. Tsyganova for her stimulating ideas and uncompromising support.

References
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, M. W. Anderson, L. J. Li, M. Hawkins, J. Electro anal. Chem. 287, 293 (1990).
2. M. C. H. McKubre, F. Tanzella, P. Tripodi, and P. Haglestein, In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000, Lerici (La Spezia), Ed. F. Scaramuzzi, (Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy, 2001), p 3; M. C. H. McKubre, In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings Of The 10th International Conference On Cold Fusion;  Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 21-29 August, 2003, Ed by P. L. Hagelstein and S. R. Chubb, (World Sci., Singapore, 2006). M. C. H. McKubre, “Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions”, Presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.
3. Y. Arata, Y. Zhang, “The special report on research project for creation of new energy”, J. High Temp. Soc. (1) (2008).
4. E. Tsyganov, in Physics of Atomic Nuclei, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 1981–1989. Original Russian text published in Yadernaya Fizika, 2010, Vol. 73, No. 12, pp. 2036–2044.
5. E.N. Tsyganov, “The mechanism of DD fusion in crystals”, submitted to IL NUOVO CIMENTO 34 (4-5) (2011), in Proceedings of the International Conference Channeling 2010 in Ferrara, Italy, October 3-8 2010.
6. H.J. Assenbaum, K. Langanke and C. Rolfs, Z. Phys. A – Atomic Nuclei 327, p. 461-468 (1987).
7. C. Rolfs, “Enhanced Electron Screening in Metals: A Plasma of the Poor Man”, Nuclear Physics News, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006.
8. A. Huke, K. Czerski, P. Heide, G. Ruprecht, N. Targosz, and W. Zebrowski, “Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications”, PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 015803 (2008).
9. L.N. Bogdanova, Proceedings of International Conference on Muon Catalyzed Fusion and Related Topics, Dubna, June 18–21, 2007, published by JINR, E4, 15-2008-70, p. 285-293
10. G.M. Hale, “Nuclear physics of the muon catalyzed d+d reactions”, Muon Catalyzed Fusion 5/6 (1990/91) p. 227-232.
11. F. Raiola (for the LUNA Collaboration), B. Burchard, Z. Fulop, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys.31, 1141 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. A 27, s01, 79 (2006).

by E.N. Tsyganov
(UA9 collaboration) University of Texas Southwestern
Medical Center at Dallas, Texas, USA

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3,443 comments to Cold nuclear fusion

  • Andrea Rossi

    Michele Bruno:
    Thank you for your kind words.
    We will have news worth to be communicated, positive or negative as they might be, when the report of the third indipendent party’s long run test will be completed. About the patents, our patent attorneys are working very well, I think. All we can do to merit your trust is to work, and that’s what we are doing. I understand that the situation, from the public point of view, is a little bit boring, but this is not the right moment to talk.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Michele Bruno

    Hi Mr Rossi,

    Are there any news about Ecat test? When will be possible to read news about the U.S. patent?

    I trust you, Mr Rossi :-)

    Thank you

    Michele Bruno

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bobby Curto:
    I received your comment and respect your will not to publish it. As a matter of fact, I did not receive all the stuff you sent. My blog, as well as my email addresses, are continuously hacked, and here is a permanent war between our IT guy and the imbeciles that try to put bumps in the road of our communication. The last naive attempt has been the manipulation of the data base of the Patent Office of Italy by a hacker, who is also a snake and has also 3 pseudonyms with which hiddens himself and his cowardice using fake websites: with this hacking action he has put an invented name on my patent granted in 2009 with priority April 2008, then this imbecile has published in a website of one of his pseudonyms, among other stupidities, the fatal question: ” Is really of Andrea Rossi the patent?” and linked the manipulated page of the Patent Office. Obviously we made a complaint and the data base has been immediately corrected, cancelling the invented name and reinstating “Andrea Rossi” as the inventor. This journalistic fraud is just a paradigmatic example of what happens now and again to us in the field of the communication media.
    So, dear Bob, if you see that something you send is not published, just send it again. When we are hacked it takes just some hours for us to fix the damage.
    It can also happen that a comment is erroneously spammed from the robot: in this case, means that the comment contains links that are erroneously taken as advertising: if so, resend, eliminating the link. Otherwise, for any other reason, write to
    info@journal-of-nuclear-physics.com
    About the other questions:
    1- I am the chief scientist of Industrial Heat, and therefore my duties for IH do not involve me in commercial decisions
    2- The third indipendent party validation in course does not depend on me for any issue regarding time scheduling, measurements . All I give is technical assistance if requested.
    3- I do not control the tests and the results of the tests, that will be published indipendently and whatever the results, positive or negative; I also insist on the fact that the results could also be negative.

    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Nicola Leoni
    The domestic E-Cat are not yet for sale.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • nicola leoni

    Salve dottor Rossi.
    Mi congratulo vivamente per le sue ricerche, ero interessato a prenotare l’E-CAT.
    Come devo fare, e volevo anche sapere se potrò essere un distributore per l’Italia
    Grazie in anticipo!!

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jasen Sanders:
    You have no reason to be sorry, you offended nobody, as far as I know!
    After we will have completed the R&D and validation work in course, the plants will begin to proliferate, if the results will confirm to be positive.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jasen Sanders

    Dear Mr Rossi, I am truly sorry. I hope I did not offend you with my first comment. Glad to hear things are going well. Hope to see your technology in a power plant near me soon. (SF bay area/Silicon Valley)

    Warm Regards,

    Jasen.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jasen Sanders:
    Thank you for your attention. To understand better why I will never retire, anybody interested about my roots can go throughly to:
    http://www.ingandrearossi.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jasen Sanders

    Mr Rossi,
    Thank you. I am very glad to hear that.
    Warm Regards,

    Jasen.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Jasen Sanders:
    No, I am not retiring. I am the chief scientist, leading the R&D process. I will never retire, obviously, and I am honoured to work in a strong and motivated Team.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Jasen Sanders

    Dr Rossi,
    In a press release has been reported that your tech has been bought by Industrial Heat llc. Are you retiring?

    warm regards,

    Jasen.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ecat- ering:
    Merry Christmas to you.
    The domestic E-Cat will not hit the market for the time being. As we already have explained, years of industrial applications will be necessary before this technology can obtain the safety certification for households. We cannot foresee when the domestic applications will be available.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ecat-ering

    Dr Rossi:

    Hello, how are you?
    How much longer for the placing on the market of the ‘ECAT 10 kw’ ?
    PS:
    it’s Christmas so I’m preparing the sausages so always available to a meeting for an ECAT-ering of ours.
    Merry Christmas from Ecat-ering

  • Andrea Rossi

    Pietro F.:
    Thank you, best wishes to you and your family. We’ll have a 2014 full of surprises ( hopefully positive).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pietro F.

    Auguri di buone feste a lei, alla sua famiglia e ai suoi collaboratori.

    Lascio dello champagne al fresco per brindare al suo futuro (spero prossimo) successo.

    Auguroni

    Merry Christmas to you, your family and your staff.

    I leave to cool champagne to toast the future (hopefully next year) success.

    Pietro F.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alessandro:
    Ihave pretty clear the theory behind the effect. We know it and as an experimentalist I have formulated it after the experimental results. I can add that between what I thought theoretically in 2008 and what I got now the difference is substantial.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alessandro

    Dear Dr Rossi,
    months ago I’ve read a very interesting comment about your discovery and I think this is the best contribution for your work: “when umanity discovered fire nobody knew why the fire could help everybody to heating and to eating during the cold winter days and only thousand years after we have understood the reactions that born inside the combustion..but in that time was really not important know, first of all was important just survive…”
    If we want to stay on this comment in wich point actually we are about the ecat teory? thousand years ago, some years ago, some months ago or in finally we know?
    thanks again for your work and in bocca al lupo!!
    Alessandro Ghio

  • Andrea Rossi

    Pietro F.:
    Thanks for the information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pietro F.

    forse la puo’ interessare:
    http://softair-tech.com/
    sembra una società italiana di Teramo.
    Buon lavoro.

  • Stuart Sanderson

    Thanks Andrea. I was just trying to keep the interest going in this area. I’m sure the results will come out just fine. Good luck!

    Charlie, we might need A.R. to push his schedule if we are to stay ahead of the mini ice age. Although I’m not sure how it will effect us in NZ. More earthquakes perhaps…

    Regards

    SS

  • Charlie Sutherland

    Here’s an interesting article that might get a lot of folks interested in your progress reports.

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/paulhudson/posts/Real-risk-of-a-Maunder-minimum-Little-Ice-Age-says-leading-scientist

  • Andrea Rossi

    Stuart Sanderson:
    We are continuing our rigorous process of Validation, Research and Development. Until this work will not have been completed, I will not be able to give specific information. As soon as we will have consolidated results, positive or negative, we will share with our Readers such results.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Stuart Sanderson

    It has been very quiet on here for some time Andrea. Would you be kind enough to give everyone an update on your progress?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Stuart Sanderson:
    Yes, our US Partner has it all
    Warm Regards
    AR

  • Stuart Sanderson

    Hi A.R.

    I apologise if this sounds like a morbid question, but If you was hit by a bus and died, would your technology die with you or have you taken enough steps to ensure that the technology succeeds no matter what life brings?

  • Charlie Sutherland

    It has got to be fun working on something you know will change the world.

    All the best.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Charlie Sutherland:
    This is the first hand place, but the communication guys of our Partner will give in due time all the needed information.
    We are working, working, working. No holidays, here.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Charlie Sutherland

    Mr Rossi,

    I was asked today about your progress. Where, besides here, is the best place to find out?

    Thanks,

    Charlie Sutherland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dwayne Anderson:
    Thank you for the info,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Pietro F.:
    We are working at the electric power production issue and I am optimistic of the applications to come, due to the behavior of the high temperature Hot Cats.
    We will give information about this issue only when we will be ready with a product.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pietro F.

    Buongiorno ing. Rossi,
    ritengo che la produzione elettrica sia la madre di tutti risultati ottenibili con l’ecat,
    come siamo messi? puo’ dirci a che punto siamo e quali sono le problematiche da risolvere?
    la ringrazio e buon lavoro

    Hello ing. Rossi,
    I believe that the production of electricity is the mother of all results obtained with the ecat,
    where are we? can tell us where we are and what issues are to be solved?
    thank you and good work

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ecat-ering:
    The certification process for the domestic E-Cat is still in progress. The timing and the output does not depend on us, while our R&D endeavour continues.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ecat-ering

    Salve Rossi , come va ?
    A che punto è la certificazione e la messa sul mercato dei 10 kwh.
    Buon lavoro
    Ecat-ering

  • Andrea Rossi

    Michele:
    Thank you, but please write in English!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Michele

    Ing. Rossi, ormai ti seguo da anni. Sei una speranza per molti giovani ingegneri come me.
    Sei il mio eroe personale.
    Non perdo una puntata di questa splendida avventura sulla Fusione Fredda.
    Ti faccio i miei complimenti per gli splendidi risultati ottenuti. Grazie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ecat-ering:
    the Third Indipendent Party has made a completely indipendent test, with their ownd conservative parameters. We had no voice in their work.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Raul Nardelotto:
    Yes, that is called co-generation.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Raul Nardelotto

    I apologize for my English.
    I can not wait to see the product at work and see it on sale for home use.
    So after the photovoltaic integrerei this in my home to be totally independent for the production of energy.
    One question: after the production of heat through fusion, I guess there is a turbine to take advantage of the heat exchange of the reaction, the waste water back if you want you can exploit to the heating of house / industry?
    Keep up with his step to reach a mass production to power at all.

    good work

    Raul

  • Ecat-ering

    Salve Rossi , ho letto la relazione di terze parti e i dati sono a mio modesto parere ottimi ma non in linea con i test precedenti.
    Il COP ricavato ed la temperatura di funzionamento per i piccoli e medi impianti è senzazionale, dati che danno una scadenza agli altri sistemi di produzione caldo e freddo.
    Il COP delle prove precedenti era notevolmente più alto , questo dipende dalla carica?
    PS se non ci incontriamo i salami stanno finendo.
    Saluti Ecat-ering
    Hi Rossi, I read the report and third-party data are excellent in my humble opinion, but not in line with the previous tests.
    The COP proceeds and the operating temperature for small and medium plants is sensational, data that give a deadline to other production systems, hot and cold.
    The COP of the previous tests was significantly higher, this depends on the charge?
    PS if we do not meet the sausages are running out.
    Greetings Ecat-ering

  • Dwayne Anderson

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I am impatient to see E-Cat tech in common use. What is your current estimate of when units will be mass produced for sale?

    Thanks,
    Dwayne

  • Andrea Rossi

    Stuart Sanderson:
    Of course you wanted not say anything illegal! It’s just that you are not supposed to know rules that I am demanded to know, that’s all.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Stuart Sanderson

    Hi A.R.

    I apologise if I set a perception that I wanted to do something illegal. It was not my intent.

    I was respectfully wondering if there was an alternative means of distributing your well proven technology. I have a small farm in NZ which could make good commercial use of your ecat, but not the 1MW version.

    That said Andrea, I’m sure you are past the guinea pig stage given your latest reports.

    Warm Regard

    S.S.

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