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Theoretical feasibility of cold fusion according to the BSM-Supergravitation unified theory

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by
Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev
York University, Toronto, Canada
E-mails: stoyans@cse.yorku.ca – sarg137@yahoo.com


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Abstract

Advances in the field of cold fusion and the recent success of the nickel and hydrogen exothermal reaction, in which the energy release cannot be explained by a chemical process, need a deeper understanding of the nuclear reactions and, more particularly, the possibility for modification of the Coulomb barrier.

The current theoretical understanding based on high temperature fusion does not offer an explanation for the cold fusion or LENR.

The treatise “Basic Structures of Matter – Supergravitation Unified Theory”, based on an alternative concept of the physical vacuum, provides an explanation from a new point of view by using derived three-dimensional structures of the atomic nuclei.

For explanation of the nuclear energy, a hypothesis of a field micro-curvature around the superdense nucleus is suggested.

The new theoretical approach in the analysis of some successful cold fusion experiments resulted in practical considerations for modification of the Coulomb barrier.

A possibility of another cold fusion reaction is predicted due to some similarity between the nuclear structures of Ni and Cr.
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240 comments to Theoretical feasibility of cold fusion according to the BSM-Supergravitation unified theory

  • Andrea Rossi

    Anonymous:
    The data regarding the ratio between energy produced and energy consumed by the Activator and the E-Cat will be delivered with the report that will be published in a peer reviewed magazine after the completion of the tests of validation made by the third party.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Anonymous

    Mr. Rossi

    You had mentioned that the current systems were operating most of the time in self-sustaining mode and even while being charged are net-energy positive. Can you tell us anything about the COP of the system now?

    Thank you

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N. Karels:
    1- no
    2- no
    3- no
    4- this is a very difficult measurement. We are trying, though.
    About 1,2,3: Within several months I will make a publication, wherein all the issues that will not affect the IP will be touched. This will be after the completion of the third indipendent party validation. Again, I have to remind that the results of the validation will be published whatever the results, and that the results could be positive or negative.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    1. Are you able to discuss at this time which reaction is the primary energy production mechanism with eCat. Originally, it was postulated that it was Nickel + Hydrogen to produce Copper. Later, another unspecified reaction was suggested.

    2. Certain reaction by-products may become measureable because of the long duration experiments. Can you discuss any observed reaction by-products?

    3. Your posts on recycling Nickel suggests that only one or two isotopes of Nickel are actually consumed in the eCat reaction? Can you clarify this?

    4. Was any reaction mass decrease observed on the long duration experiments? I know this is difficult to measure due to environmental effects. But a time history of the eCat mass versus expended energy might give an insight or verification of the effect.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Koen Vandewalle:
    1- for sure we are not producing radioactive by- products, this has been already certified.
    2- the analysis of the charges after a long period of operation is very interesting. Yes, when the intellectual property will no more be an issue, most information will be shared
    3- obviously, now we are in a period of validation of the current operation of the E-Cat, therefore what we deal with now is a normal operation, totally and perfectly under control. In this situation the variations of the charges are consolidated, even if I must repeat again that the validation and R&D work is in course, and until this work will not be completed we cannot say anything specific. The results at the end of this work could be positive as well as negative, and such results will be published on a peer reviewed magazine, positive or negative as they might be.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Dear Andrea Rossi,
    Is the extended testing of E-Cat also necessary to check if no unknown byproducts or effects are created ? These can either be harmfull or, on the opposite, be a hidden treasure.

    I Ask you for this: By reading articles and comments on JoNP, it becomes clear that a lot of very clever and open minded people are searching to understand the “matter” and the “universe”. Some very intriguing phenomenae of current times and also remains or traces from ancient times cannot be explained with current common knowledge.

    Have you seen phenomenae or glimpses of them around E-Cat that might be of great interest for humanity, besides the energy production which was the main purpose of your invention ? Or are you or your team not at all interested for the moment ? If there is something interesting, did you make agreements on that, or will it be public domain, once the theory is explained ?

    Kind Regards,
    Koen

  • Andrea Rossi

    Joe:
    I did not receive it. Can you re-send to
    info@journal-of-nuclear-physics.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joe

    Dr Rossi,

    I sent a message to the contact address of the JoNP two days ago.
    Has it been received yet?

    All the best,
    Joe

  • orsobubu

    michael schneider,

    your arguments are interesting, and have already been eviscerated in various ways here over the past few years. Also on the e-catworld blog by frank acland there are often debates on this issue although, unlike JONP, e-catworld is somewhat more moderated. I believe that the influence of new forms of energy production on the future geopolitical development lies in the ability of the capitalist system to absorb shocks using these technologies to manage the crisis to expand into new markets, developing new products and new geographic areas (Asia and Africa especially) triggering new opportunities for social and technological development and new concentrations of wealth. If this were not enough, the capitalist system (I would rather say imperialistic, using the categories of Lenin, monopolism, financialization, export of capitals, fight on world markets, geo-strategic sphere of influence) has many other powerful weapons to use, especially the intervention of state capitalism, the printing of currency, taxation on new forms of energy production, even limited military operations which we have witnessed in recent decades. If the crisis became unmanageable (as I believe it will be the unavoidable end), mainly as a result of unpredictable new general crisis of overproduction, unemployment, falling rate of profit, inflation, deflation and protectionism, the word will switch to more authoritarian leaderships and generalzed military confrontation, and certainly in this field the new energy technologies will have an interesting application. But I think the key to the solution of the social problem (indeed already possible for over a century) is not in leaving the world government in the hands of the classes that have run it so far, but lies in the ability of workers around the world to understand how new energy and robotic technologies offer the instruments to build a world without poverty and war, and then organize themselves for the revolutionary transition to an economic and social order subsequent to capitalism, without wage labor, money and market. Only in this way mankind would have the material and philosophical means to start the explorations of other worlds, instead of stick to destroy the our one with misery, wars and nuclear contamination only aimed to make someone able to have short-term profits.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Michael Schneider:
    Thank you for your elaborated insight.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    I love New Hampshire, and I can’t forget the 4 years of my life I spent there, also plowing snow in that enchanting environment. My LENR has been born there !
    I used to make cross country skiing around the Massabesic lake in this period, when the lake is totally iced.
    About the E-Cat: we are continuing our validation and R&D work, and I can promise nothing until the results, positive or negative as they might be, will be conclusive.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Roberto Frase:
    Thank you, we are working on it.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Roberto Frase

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    Hope to read soon some “official” sucessfull news
    I’m spending 200,00 Euro/Week for gas and electricity
    Would like to be one of your first e-cat-clients in Italy… (one of the most burocratic countries in the world)
    Regards
    R.F.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Today, in New Hampshire, I ran the snowblower and moved/disposed of about 12″ of snow. Oil bill runs around $800 per month for my small home. Sure wish I had an eCat to warm the house and melt the snow on the driveway. Keep up the great work and don’t forget about residential customers.

  • Koen Vandewalle

    Bertoldo:
    Newton’s laws of motion need to be re-investigated from this viewpoint.
    Do mass, gravity or inertia really exist ? Or are they more some kind of effects ?
    This may be a (the) breaktrough that makes a lot of complicated models more simple and comprehensive.
    Less is more.
    Koen

  • Joe

    Giovanni, Bertoldo,

    Terms like “dimensional door” or “dimensional bridge” or “extra dimensions” or “interdimensional influence” or “interaction between dimensions” or “hidden dimensions” are illogical since dimensions are not physical objects but mental ones. In fact, the usual three dimensions that we imagine at mutual right angles make it quite clear that they are independent of one another. Not one of these dimensions will ever lead to the others. And certainly there can not exist more than these three spatial dimensions since the nature of our minds dictates so.

    Another problem with the concept of “extra dimensions” is that it is an example of escapism. Instead of trying to solve a problem in the reality that we know well – our only reality – that problem is shoved off into the world of fantasy. And once there, everything is permissible for a solution. Evidence of this is that we have endless theorizing about extra spatial dimensions and yet no successful predictions that have ever come of it. We have expanded from String Theory to M-Theory to F-Theory because theorists have no sense of logic although they may be able mathematicians. It seems that theorists are becoming more interested in eliminating problems than in actually solving them. The concept of “extra dimensions” brings up the old adage: if one is not enough, a thousand is not too many. Human nature truly does not change.

    All the best,
    Joe

  • Dear Mister Rossi,

    Congratulations to you and your team on the fast progress you are doing. The day in which there will be general recognition of the Rossi-effect is approaching rapidly. As this is a totally connected world, once the word is out (ie some major scientists/organisations/government acknowledges the reality of the phenomenon) there will be no more day where ecatenergy will not be on the frontpage off FT and the Wallstreet journal.

    You have previously written that Rossi-effect generated energy will insert itself into the existing energy mix gradually and therefore not disturb energy prices and existing equilibriums. As the hotcat will be able to produce electricity rather soon and massively at unbeatable prices (not to mention house appliances, but which I guess are 10 years away because of safety assessment, and gradual shift), I think on the contrary that the Rossi-effect beeing so disuptive (a division by 2 (US) to 10 (Japan, Europe) of the average energy cost) once established will very rapidely have extremely heavy consequences and generate financial, political and social risks :

    1/ stock market/energy market risks:
    The stock market allways anticipates. The value of the main energy extraction companies will be extremely severed, pushing these companies into bankruptcy since their debts will never be redeemed.
    This will cause havoc on stock market and in pension funds since very much value is locked in these companies and will probably not be compensated by the rise of say the value of your company (should it be stock listed) and your partners company and some competitors. The loss of value of Big Oil will correspond to the overall saving from which ultimately households will benefit. The value of Utilities (heat/electricity generation and transport) will be spared for a wile until the house appliance gets the go from certificators/regulators. All this should trigger “some” unemployment but that could be absorbed rather fast by the general economy rising thanks to the cheap energy stimulus.

    2/ geopolitical risks :
    Once the reality of the rossi-effect and industrial use confirmed, oil, gas and coal prices will plunge immediately since their price is based on their rarity. The countries relying heavily on their carbon energy assets will be ruined. Practically from one day to the other they will not be able to finance their public services anymore. Lots of local employement will be lost. Probably a massive Marshall-plan like program will be needed where industrial countries help sustain the transition of OPEC countries like Saudi Arabia to an industrial/knowledge based economy. This also to avoid political unrests which could be exploited by Islam fundamentalism and radical groups in the Arabic countries.

    If not done yet, I would suggest you try, maybe via Elforsk/Swedish government and US government, the Italian government (or parts thereof ie the President) to quickly achieve a confidential high governmental level recognition (G20) of the fundamentally disruptive qualities of the Rossi effect – and it’s aforementioned short term risks. Probably the best would then be to have a confidential G20/FMI conference in order to prepare the best strategies to avoid marketcollapse and political turmoil ie an orderly energy transition.

    Your invention is the highest hopes for billions of people – it could be the sacred graal of this generation which will contribute to allow mankind to put an end to poverty and start to explore the stars. Yet the next 5 years can be very dangerous, bringing misery and death to many if not managed with care and anticipation.

    This is of course only my humble opinion…

    I whish you, your family and colleagues a very fruitfull new year !!

    Michael

    Ps1: I understand you will not publish this line of thought but would be interested in your point of view of course.
    Ps2: To government agencies reading this: please forward this memo to whom this may concern :) seriously !

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    Bertoldo:
    I add,if I have uderstood well,the M Theory suppose the existance of 10+1 dimensions,and graviton would be the bridge among dimensions(and its force could be stronger than we feel).
    The gravitational effect that we suppose is produced by dark matter,could be an interdimensional influence of gravitons?
    And the acceleration that we observe in the expansion of the universe,could be another strange effect of the interaction between dimensions?

    Regards G G

  • Andrea Rossi

    Bertoldo:
    The Russian experiment of plasma in space is very interesting for the study of particles. Thank you for the link.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • bertoldo

    e aggiungo , l’ecat è una possibile porta dimensionale apribile a comando da cui riesce a cavare energia ?

    and I add, the ECAT is a dimensional door can be opened to control which manages to get energy?

    Saluti dal centro del mondo .

  • bertoldo

    può essere che il centro di un nastro di moebius sia il centro dell’uovo che appare al minuto : 2:33 dell’esperimento dei russi ? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kanYuBptuZ0 vale a dire una porta dimensionale secondo questo articolo : http://www.ansa.it/scienza/notizie/rubriche/spazioastro/2013/12/16/Universo-ologramma-10-dimensioni_9789042.html

    nastro di moebius https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSankXk0Opnkh-maYeFc24FI4j746emsXmlsaxfBySfEAlLVq1AMg

    it may be that the center of a mobius strip is the center of the egg that appears in minute: 2:33 experiment of the Russians? namely a dimensional door (google translate sorry)Corretto il link errato .

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    Yes, you are right. The modules are 10 kW reactors and, yes, the maintainance is in turns to avoid decreases of production (by means of excess reactors).
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Frank Acland:
    Good question. Is necessary a back up ( usually a genset).
    Happy 2014 to you and our Readers,
    A.R.

  • Frank Acland

    Dear Andrea,

    Obviously for the hot cat to operate correctly and safely you need a constant and reliable source of electricity. What are the recommendations for an uninterrupted supply of electricity in sufficient quantities?

    Happy 2014!

    Frank Acland

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    Given the several hours of transition or ramp time, the current eCat approach seems well suited for baseline electric power generation. These plants produce lower cost electricity, operate continuously (for several months) and essentially have a constant output.

    Can you reveal what output level per eCat unit you are designing to — 100kW or 10kW or more? I would assume a 1 GW electric power generation plant would be made of an essemble of about 3GW thermal of eCat units. Maintenance could be done individually on a specific unit while the rest remain “on-line”?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dr Joseph Fine:
    We are still working on these parameters. We aim to have a 1,000 °C ( before cooling) in operational industrial stable mode. The ramps are not relevant for us, being, so far, the utilization foreseen for 24/7 working turns; presently we have transitory ramps of several hours.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi:

    How long does it take from start-up to reach an operating temperature of 1000 deg. Celsius?

    Is 1000 deg. Celsius an operating temperature or is it used only for tests?

    How long does it take to reach shutdown from 1000 deg. Celsius if you don’t use the destructive 10-second path?

    New Year Regards,

    Joseph Fine

  • Andrea Rossi

    Italo R.:
    You are right, very interesting!
    Thank you for the information,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Giovanni Guerrini:
    Likewise to you and, again, to all our Readers
    Andrea Rossi

  • Giovanni Guerrini

    @ Mr Rossi and everybody

    Happy New Year !

    I feel that this will be “The Year” !

    Giovanni

  • Italo R.

    This really is very interesting, and it seems developed specially for all the Rossi’s cats!!

    http://www.nasa.gov/press/2013/december/nasa-glenn-technology-may-soon-power-american-households/#.UsPGJfTuLh4

  • Andrea Rossi

    Orsobubu:
    He,he,he…Happy 2014!
    A.R.

  • orsobubu

    Steven N. Karels,

    The news talks of the JONP server trapped by esclating comments up to 4 enthusiastic posts per minute.

    A 1MW thermal output eCat can power 10.8 cubic JONP servers per hour.

    Assume a 1,000 MW eCat unit associated with a cutting edge JONP server. If the eCat was self-powered, and all the generated energy was used for publish esponentially escalating comments, then the unit should be able to post 10,800 cubic meters per hour of comments. Assuming a 10 MBytes/sec band width, with an average posts lenght of 4 rows, the foward rate would be about 250 enthusiastic comments per hour.

  • Robert Tanhaus

    Dear Dr. Rossi,

    I wish you lots of success and excitement for 2014.
    Change the world for the better.

    Best regards,
    Robert Tanhaus

  • Andrea Rossi

    Fabio82:

    WE OF THE JONP WISH A 2014 AS AN “ANNUS MIRABILIS” TO ALL OUR DEAR READERS !!!
    THE BOARD OF ADVISERS OF THE JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND ANDREA ROSSI

  • Andrea Rossi

    Steven N Karels:
    Interesting,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Steven N. Karels

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    The news talks of the ships trapped by ice up to 4 meters in thickness.

    A 1MW thermal output eCat can melt 10.8 cubic meters per hour.

    Assume a 1,000 MW eCat unit associated with an icebreaker naval vessel. If the eCat was self-powered, and all the generated energy was used for melting ice, then the unit should be able to melt 10,800 cubic meters per hour of operation. Assuming a 10 meter wide path, with the ice depth of 4 meters, the foward rate would be about 250 meters per hour.

  • fabio82

    I think that 2014 will be the e cat’s “annus mirabilis”
    Thank you for your hard working
    Fabio

  • Andrea Rossi

    Silvio Caggia:
    As you explained in an email sent to me privately, “from cradle to cradle product” means essentially a product wasteless during the production, the working life and the dismission: in this case, yes, the E-Cat is a cradle to cradle product. All the components are recyclable and the “wastes” are recyclable metals.
    Thank you for the interesting question.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Andrea Rossi

    David Robertson:
    Thank you for your insight.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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