To Understand The Basics Of Black Hole Cosmology

.
by
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U.V.S. Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad-35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam-03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@yahoo.com
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.
Introduction
In this paper by highlighting the following 28 major short comings of modern big bang cosmology the authors made an attempt to develop a possible model of Black hole cosmology in a constructive way [1-3].
From now onwards instead of focusing on ‘big bang cosmology’ it is better to concentrate on ‘black hole cosmology’.
Its validity can be well confirmed from a combined study of cosmological and microscopic physical phenomena.
It can be suggested that, there exists one variable physical quantity in the presently believed atomic and nuclear physical constants and “rate of change” in its magnitude can be considered as a “standard measure” of the present “cosmic rate of expansion”.
Michael E. McCulloch says [4]: For an observer in an expanding universe there is a maximum volume that can be observed, since beyond the Hubble distance the velocity of recession is greater than the speed of light and the redshift is infinite: this is the Hubble volume.
Its boundary is similar to the event horizon of a black hole because it marks a boundary to what can be observed.
This means that it is reasonable to assume that Hawking radiation is emitted at this boundary both outwards and inwards to conserve energy, and any wavelength that does not fit exactly within this size cannot be allowed for the inwards radiation, and therefore also for the outwards radiation.
According to Hawking, the mass of a black hole is linearly related to its temperature or inversely-linearly related to the wavelength of the Hawking radiation it emits.
Therefore, for a given size of the universe there is a maximum Hawking wavelength it can have and a minimum allowed gravitational mass it can have.
If its mass was less than this then the Hawking radiation would have a wavelength that is bigger than the size of the observed universe and would be disallowed.
The minimum mass it predicts is encouragingly close to the observed mass of the Hubble volume.
Thus it is possible to model the Hubble volume as a black hole that emits Hawking radiation inwards, disallowing wavelengths that do not fit exactly into the Hubble diameter, since partial waves would allow an inference of what lies outside the horizon.
According to Tinaxi Zhang [5-7], the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses and gradually grew up through a super massive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes.
According to N. J. Poplawski [8-11], the Universe is the interior of an Einstein-Rosen black hole and began with the formation of the black hole from a supernova explosion in the center of a galaxy.
He theorizes that torsion manifests itself as a repulsive force which causes fermions to be spatially extended and prevents the formation of a gravitational singularity within the black hole’s event horizon.
Because of torsion, the collapsing matter on the other side of the horizon reaches an enormous but finite density, explodes and rebounds, forming an Einstein-Rosen bridge (wormhole) to a new, closed, expanding universe.
Analogously, the Big Bang is replaced by the Big Bounce before which the Universe was the interior of a black hole.
The rotation of a black hole would influence the space-time on the other side of its event horizon and results in a preferred direction in the new universe.
Most recently cosmologists Razieh Pourhasan, Niayesh Afshordi and Robert B. Manna have proposed [12] that the Universe formed from the debris ejected when a four-dimensional star collapsed into a black hole – a scenario that would help to explain why the cosmos seems to be so uniform in all directions.

629 comments to To Understand The Basics Of Black Hole Cosmology

  • Andrea Rossi

    T.S.:
    Missiles are concealed under a layer of velvety feathers.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • T.S.

    Dear Andrea:
    Yesterday I was walking along the seaside of Miami Beach ( a paradise). I observed carefully all the seagulls around, no exceptions, with my binocular, but I could see none with missiles under the wings. How so? ( He he he)
    T.S.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Robert Curto:
    Thank you!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Robert Curto

    Dr, Rossi, I love your response to Koen Vandewalle.
    Robert Curto
    Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    When Riccardo Muti saw this video purported by your link he proposed me to become the percussionist of the Orchestra of the Theater La Scala of Milan. Really, I am not joking.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Hello Dr. Rossi , even if your birthday is past few months, we can still celebrate the recent patent.
    Congratulations to the solo with the battery.
    To the readers of the newspaper I say do not miss this cute video.

    Andrea Rossi LIVE from shipping container
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mK7rrmgbugo&feature=youtu.be

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    Thank you, but we have a lot of work to do before talking of revolution. I just hope to reach a reliable and useful product. And make jobs.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Congratulations Dr. Rossi, after so much work coming satisfactions. Now begins the second industrial revolution .

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    Thank you. As you know, I never comment the work of our competitors.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Hello Dr. Rossi, did you read this interview about a Russian experiment ?

    Infinite Energy: Report of Excess Heat and Neutrons from Russian Experiments by Sergei Tcvetkov

    http://www.infinite-energy.com/images/pdfs/Tcvetkov.pdf
    This protocol is based on Titanium deuteride and gas permeation.

    http://www.lenr-forum.com/forum/index.php/Thread/1941-Infinite-Energy-Report-of-Excess-Heat-and-Neutrons-from-Russian-Experiments-by-S/

    Report of Excess Heat and Neutrons from Russian Experiments
    Sergei Tcvetkov Work in Nurnberg Shows Encouraging Results with Titanium and Deuterium
    Marianne Macy has been doing oral histories relating to the cold fusion since 2007. She is writing a book on cold
    fusion’s start to the present day. She reports on new energy, integrative medicine and social/business issues.

    Tcvetkov wrote:
    Right now with my protocol I can give you exact figures. Here are the results of my measurements. This protocol reflects the latest experimental results. The figures reflected are the most recent. The excess heat, the calculated excess heat, is deuterated titanium at 573 degrees, the sum of COP is 1.789 Joules, or 1 degree per gram…131 Kj…For the time of 190 seconds this amounts to 695 Watts. The extended power for the heating of the sample is calculated at 153 W. That means that the excess power coefficient is 224. This is the data coming from one of the experiments.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Donovan Milas:
    No, not yet. I hope to put in operation the new one by the end of this week or the beginning of the next.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Donovan Milas

    Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Is the new E-Cat X working again? Reparation made?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gerry Carillon:
    We reached 1380°C and resisted for about 10 hours at that temperature, of which 8 hours in ssm.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Gerry Carillion

    Dear Andrea:
    Which is the maximum value of temperature the new Hot Cat can reach?
    Cheers,
    Gerry

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    Catastrophisms apart, ( I don’t believe that within 15 years we will have an ice-age), I really think that the E-Cat will help families in all the world to kepp themselves warm at a cheaper price than expected. This is the easier task for the E-Cats to perform.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.
    P.S. There is a possibility, though: if the results of the tests on course on the industrial E-Cat will be confirmed positive at the end of the test cycle, the LENR negationists will be turned so iced to cause a global icing for the heat exchange.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Hello Dr. Rossi , did you read the news that in 2030 we risk a new ice age ?
    The Hot Cat will help us stay warm !!

    http://www.tgcom24.mediaset.it/green/nel-2030-il-sole-andra-a-dormire-si-rischia-una-mini-era-glaciale_2121950-201502a.shtml

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    Thank you for the interesting link. If it works, yes.
    When a product will be available to test it we will make a proof.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Hello Dr. Rossi,
    Do you think it is possible to put a water motor to provide electricity to the Hot Cat? I am attaching two patents:

    http://www.hydromoving.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11&Itemid=115

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    In Russia the so called rossi Effect has now been replicated repeatedly, it appears. I think Dr Alexander Parkhomov has a great merit on this.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Hi Dr. Rossi, please read these new experiments that are leading in Russia:

    http://tet.in.ua/index.php/en/

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=j11d1g1oSFo

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    Yes, I am delighted to read this. Nikola Tesla has been a much more important inventor than he ie considered.
    Very interesting, thank you.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Hello Dr. Rossi , I suppose you will be delighted reading this comment.

    From the times of Tesla in the 1890s, Cold fusion has been discovered and then forgotten and then later rediscovered in a tragic cycle of frustration and forgetfulness. Tesla may have been the first. There is a persistent urban legend about Nikola Tesla. The prolific Serbian inventor who claimed that his greatest achievement, the achievement that he was most proud of, was not alternating current or the radio, but a high voltage tube which could produce energy and transmute materials.

    http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/06/29/lenr-and-the-long-march-into-forgetfulness-axil-axil/

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    Thank you for the link,
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    hello Dr. Rossi , also the Norwegians are replicating Lugano .

    http://www.aftenposten.no/fakta/innsikt/Er-kald-fusjon-losningen-pa-klimakrisen-8056195.html

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    Actually, in Russia the scientists are working hard on the replications of the Lugano test. Very, very interesting also this one.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Hello Dr. Rossi, this is exciting news, what do you think?

    Denis writes in conclusion:

    Operation of the reactor at the maximum heating continued for about 6 hours, and It stopped as a result of burnout of the electric heater of the reactor fuel. Severe destruction of cement in the central part of the tube with fuel and burnout cantal helix indicate highly significant excess of heat in comparison with empty reactor, where the spiral remained intact and visible only on small cracks cement surface, although the material, the dimensions of the tube and the electrical heating capacity of both reactors were identical. The pattern of destruction of the reactor fuel indicates that the temperature reaches at least 1300 ° C at an empty reactor about 1000 ° C.

    http://www.e-catworld.com/2015/06/20/denis-vasilenko-publishes-experiment-report/

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Michelangelo De Meo:
    Thank you for your interesting information.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • ing. Michelangelo De Meo

    Hello Dr. Rossi:
    it seems that China is working hard with the LENR !

    http://coldfusion3.com/blog/e-cat-replications-spread-chinese-government-could-be-working-on-lenr

  • Andrea Rossi

    Ing. Mi helangelo De Meo:
    Thank you for the information.
    Warm Regards
    A.R.

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