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Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System

by Yeong E. Kim Department of Physics, Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA

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ABSTRACT
Generalized theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recent experimental results of Rossi et al. for hydrogen-nickel system.  Based on incomplete experimental information currently available, preliminary theoretical explanations of the experimental results are presented in terms of the generalized BECNF theory. Additional accurate experimental data are needed for obtaining more complete theoretical descriptions and predictions, which can be tested by further experiments.

I.  Introduction
Over the last two decades, there have been many publications reporting experimental observations of excess heat generation and anomalous nuclear reactions occurring in metals at ultra-low energies, now known as „low-energy nuclear reactions‟ (LENR).  Theoretical explanations of the LENR phenomena have been described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) in micro/nano-scale metal particles [1-3].  The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation.  While the BECNF theory is able to make general qualitative predictions concerning LENR phenomena it is also a quantitative predictive physical theory.  Some of the theoretical predictions have been confirmed by experiments reported recently.  The BECNF theory was generalized for the case of two species of Bosons [4].

Recently, there were two positive demonstrations (January and March, 2011) of a heat generating device called “Energy Catalyzer” [5]. The Energy Catalyzer is an apparatus built by inventor Andrea Rossi, Italy. The patent application [5] states that the device transforms energy stored in its fuel (hydrogen and nickel) into heat by means of nuclear reaction of the two fuel components, with a consequent observed production of copper [5,6]. According to Rossi‟s patent application [5], heating of the sample is accomplished by an electric resistance heater.  Details of March 2011 demonstration were reported by Essen and Kullander [7]. The report [7] also contains references to January 2011 demonstration. In the following, we describe hydrogen-nickel reactions in section II. Other possible reactions are discussed in section III.  Conclusions are given in section IV.

II.  Hydrogen-Nickel Reactions
The generalized BECNF theory [4] can be applied to the case of hydrogen-nickel fusion reactions observed in Rossi‟s device (the energy catalyzer) [5] under the following two conditions: (1) additives used (not disclosed in the patent application) form Ni alloy and/or Ni metal/alloy oxide in the surface regions of nickel nano-scale particles, so that Ni atoms/nuclei become mobile with a sufficiently large diffusion coefficient and (2) local magnetic field is very weak in the surface regions, providing a suitable environment in which two neighboring protons can couple their spins anti-parallel to form spin-zero singlet state (S=0).  Relatively low Curie temperature (nickel has the Curie temperature of 631 oK (~358 oC)) is expected to help to maintain the weak magnetic field in the surface regions. If Rossi‟s device is operated at temperatures greater than the Curie temperature ~358 oC and with hydrogen pressures of up to ~22 bars, the conditions (1) and (2) may have been achieved in Rossi‟s device. The mobility of Ni atoms/nuclei (condition (1)) is enhanced by the use of an electric resistance heater to maintain higher temperatures. This may provide a suitable environment in which more of both Ni atoms/nuclei and protons become mobile, thus creating a favorable environment for the case of two species of Bosons (Ni nuclei and composite Bosons of paired two protons). If the velocities of mobile Ni atoms/nuclei under the condition (1) are sufficiently slow, their de-Broglie wavelengths become sufficiently large and may overlap with neighboring two-proton composite Bosons which are also mobile, thus creating Bose-Einstein condensation of two species of Bosons. The generalized BECNF theory can now be applied to these two-species of Bosons and provides a mechanism for the suppression/cancellation of the Coulomb barrier, as shown in [4]. Once the Coulomb barrier is overcome in the entrance reaction channel, many possible allowed exit reaction channels may become open such as reactions (i) ANi(2p(S=0), p)ˆA+1 Cu, with even A=58, 60, 62 and 64. These reactions will produce radioactive isotopes 59Cu and 61Cu with A = 58 and 60, respectively. 59Cu has a half-life of 81.5 seconds and decays by the electron capture to the 59Ni ground state (58.1%) which has a half-life of 7.6 x 10ˆ4 years and to the 59Ni excited states (41.9%) which in turn decay to the 59Ni ground state by emitting gamma-rays with energies ranging from 310.9 keV to 2682.0 keV [8]. 61Cu has a half-life of 3.333 hours and decays by the electron capture to the stable 61Ni ground state (67%) and to the 61Ni excited states (33%) which in turn decay to the 61Ni ground state by emitting gamma-rays with energies ranging from 67.412 keV to 2123.93 keV [8]. Gamma-rays (and neutrons) have not been observed outside the reactor chamber during the experiment [6]. These gamma-rays may have been present inside the reaction chamber. If no radiations are observed, reactions (i) are ruled out. Focardi and Rossi [6] reported that the experimental results of Rossi et al. indicate the production of  stable isotopes 63Cu and 65Cu with an isotopic ratio of 63Cu /65Cu ~ 1.6 (natural abundance is 63Cu/ 65Cu = 2.24). This production of Cu may be due to reactions (i). The production of 63Cu and 65Cu with isotopic ratio of 63Cu /65Cu different from the natural isotopic ratio is expected and can be explained by estimating the reaction rates for 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu.  Reaction rates estimates based on transmission probability calculated from a barrier tunneling model similar to the alpha-decay theory indicate that the reaction rates for stable Cu productions, 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu, are expected to be much larger than the reaction rates for production of radioactive Cu, 58Ni(2p(S=0), p)59Cu and 60Ni(2p(S=0), p)61Cu. This leads to the prediction that intensities of the gamma-rays from the decays of 59Cu and 61Cu are expected to be weak and do not commensurate with the observed heat production, which is mostly from stable Cu production  reactions 62Ni(2p(S=0), p)63Cu and 64Ni(2p(S=0), p)65Cu. There are other exit reaction channels which are (nearly) radiation-less, such as reactions (ii) ANi(2p(S=0), α)ˆA-2Ni, (even A=58, 60, 62, and 64) [9]. For this case, we expect that the natural isotopic ratio of Ni isotopes will be changed in a particular way, which can be checked from the  sample after each experiment.  Even though reactions (ii) produce radioactive isotope 56Ni, it can be shown using the alpha-decay theory that its reaction rate is much slower (by many order of magnitudes) than those of other reactions. Other exit reaction channels, ANi(2p(S=0), d)ACu, ANi(2p(S=0), 3HeA-1Ni, and ANi(2p(S=0), t)ˆA-1Cu (all with even A=58, 60, 62, and 64) are ruled out since these reactions all have negative Q-values.  There are possibilities of neutron-emission exit reaction channels, such as reactions (iii) ANi(2p(S=0), n)ˆA+1Zn, (even A= 62, and 64; Q is negative for A = 58 and 60).  However, reaction rates for reactions (iii) are expected be substantially smaller than those for reaction (i).  Reactions (iii) involve emission of a tightly bound neutron (62Ni -> 61Ni + n, Q = -10.597MeV or  64Ni -> 63Ni + n, Q = -9.657MeV) while reactions (i) involve emission of a loosely bound proton from an excited compound nuclear state consisting of ANi (even A) and 2p(S=0). Therefore, the transmission probability of a neutron tunneling through the centrifugal barrier in reactions (iii) is expected to be substantially smaller than that of a proton tunneling through the centrifugal barrier in reactions (i). The branching ratios of reactions (i) and (ii) need to be determined by measurements of gamma-ray energies and changes in isotopic ratios from future Ross-type experiments.  Theoretically, the branching ratios can be estimated by calculating transmission probability of an emitted charged particle tunneling through both Coulomb and centrifugal barriers in the exit reaction channel, as done in the alpha-decay theory.

III.  Other Possible Reactions
In addition to the above reactions described in II, there are possibilities of reactions involving additives used (not disclosed so far). For an example, if lithium is added as an additive, reaction (iv) 6Li(2p(S=0), p 3He)4He may be possible. As in cases of reactions (i) and (ii), Ni nano-particles would be still playing an important role of providing two-proton singlet composite Bosons for reaction (iv). Reaction (iv) would not change the isotopic ratios of Ni.

VI.  Conclusions
In order to explore validity and to test predictions of the generalized BECNF theory for the hydrogen-metal system, it is very important to carry out Rossi-type experiments independently in order to establish what are exact inputs and outputs of each experiment.  If the entrance and exit reaction channels are established experimentally, we can investigate selection rules as well as estimates of the reaction rates for different exit reaction channels, based on the generalized BECNF theory [1-4]. Once these experimental results are established, further application of the generalized BECNF theory can be made for the purpose of confirming the theoretical mechanism and making theoretical predictions, which can then be tested experimentally. Basic description of the above theoretical concepts for BECNF in the hydrogen-metal system will be included in an invited talk at a forthcoming nuclear physics conference [10], and will be published in the conference proceedings [10].

References

  1. Y. E. Kim, “Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Deuteron-Induced Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Grains and Particles”, Naturwissenschaften 96, 803 (2009) and references therein.
  2. Y. E. Kim, “Bose-Einstein Condensate Theory of Deuteron Fusion in Metal”, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, 188 (2010), Proceedings of Symposium on New Energy Technologies, the 239th National Meeting of American Chemical Society, San Francisco, March 21-26, 2010.
  3. Y. E. Kim, “Theoretical interpretation of anomalous tritium and neutron productions during  Pd/D co-deposition experiments”, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.  52, 31101 (2010).
  4. Y. E. Kim and A. L. Zubarev, “Mixtures of Charged Bosons Confined in Harmonic Traps and Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation Processes in Condensed Matter”, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Proceedings of the 11th International conference on Cold Fusion, Marseilles, France, 31 October – 5 November, 2006, World Scientific Publishing Co., pp. 711-717.
  5. Andrea Rossi, “METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CARRYING OUT NICKEL AND HYDROGEN EXOTHERMAL REACTION”, United States Patent Application Publication (Pub. No.: US 2011/0005506 A1, Pub. Date: Jan. 13, 2011); http://www.wipo.int/patentscope/search/ja/WO2009125444.
  6. S. Focardi and A. Rossi, “A new energy source from nuclear fusion”, March 22, 2010. http://www.nyteknik.se/incoming/article3080659.ece/BINARY/Rossi-Forcardi_paper.pdf
    http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/?p=66 ,  February 2010
  7. H. Essen and S. Kullander, “Experimental test of a mini-Rossi device at the Leonardocorp, Bologna, 29 March 2011”, a travel report, April 3, 2011; http://www.nyteknik.se/nyheter/energi_miljo/energi/article3144827.ece
  8. Table of Isotopes, 8th Edition, Volume I: A = 1-150, edited by R. B. Firestone et al., published by John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (1999), pages 270 and 284.
  9. Reactions (ii) were suggested by T.  E. Ward, private communication, May 11, 2011.
  10. Y. E. Kim, “Deuteron Fusion in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles”, an invited talk to be presented at the Fifth Asia Pacific Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics 2011(APFB2011), August 22-26, 2011, Seoul, Korea. (http://www.apctp.org/conferences/2011/APFB2011/)

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839 comments to Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System

  • [...] species of Bosons.  I will not attempt to summarize the physics here, but readers are directed to the paper “Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System” by [...]

  • Henry Higgins

    Hello out there. Just in case somebody missed it, I’m reposting my informal translation of Prof. Stremmenos’ comment. Enjoy.
    Henry

    To all JoNP readers.

    I was very much surprised, upon reading the “Description of Prior Art” in the publication of European Patent EP 2368 252 B1 (Jan 16th 2013, priority 24/11/2008) granted to inventor Francesco Piantelli, to find out that the inventor was said to have been working with nickel nano-powders since 1998. This is completely inaccurate. At that time, the only one who, together with Prof. Focardi, was making use of Ni and Pd nano-powders (prepared at Prof. E. Bonetti’s laboratory at the Department of Physics of the University of Bologna) was the present writer. I also know that Andrea Rossi had been working with nickel powders since the mid nineteen-nineties.
    I had repeatedly consulted with Piantelli, who insisted that powders could not work —  he explained why it was so with his more or less abstruse theories.
    In my publication “Fusione fredda, Un dibattito che prosegue” ) [“Cold Fusion, an Ongoing Debate”], which appeared in La chimica e l’industria. Organo Ufficiale della Società Chimica Italiana, RICHMAC Magazine, N. 81, Aprile 1999, pp. 361-363), I reported on the results and methods used in the previous three years.
    In this publication [p. 363] attention is brought to the structure of the samples used:
    «Now, as far as the metallographic structure is concerned, we know that a metallic sample is composed of mono-crystalline grains, having variable dimensions at different textures. 
    Eliminating at least the variability in grain dimension is possible if one uses mono-crystalline and granulometrically homogenous metal powders in order to prepare, by light compression, samples of the appropriate size.
    This determines an enormous increase in the interacting surface, and a homogenous statistical distribution of the various textures, including the most absorbent one, as well as of the defective state of the sample; these thus become reproducible on a percentage basis, irregardless of the sample’s thermal and mechanical history.
    The current technique for preparing powders by grinding under vacuum allows one to obtain granulometric dimensions varying from several micrometers for micro-phases, to a lower limit of 10-15 nanometers for nano-phases. It is therefore possible to prepare samples with an ample range of granulometry» [...]. 
    At the time, Piantelli was not only working with nickel rods, he was also saying that it wasn’t possible to get the the process to work with powders. One may gather that he got the idea of using powders by copying the work of others: mine, and Dr. Andrea Rossi’s. One cannot really understand how he was able to get his patent recognized, considering that his apparatus doesn’t work, and never did: Piantelli acknowledged his own publication on Nuovo Cimento, but no mention was made of the fact that in the following number of Nuovo Cimento (Vol. 102, No. 12), Prof. Zichichi and his team at the University of Bologna, where I also was teaching at the time, tested Piantelli’s apparatus and discovered that it didn’t work at all, and that all of Piantelli’s statements were unfounded. If you want to check the veracity of my statement, just look up the above-mentioned number of Nuovo Cimento – the most established Physics journal in Italy. How is it possible to grant a patent for a process that doesn’t work? Moreover, what’s the point of saying that an inventor, in order get a patent granted, must be able to allow an expert reader to reproduce the process? If  the inventor, in this case Piantelli, wasn’t able to do anything, how can he say that he is enabling others to successfully implement a process which he himself cannot get to work? I would love to know how he managed to get his patent granted. It is obviously useless, both because the process doesn’t produce anything, and because Rossi had already patented a similar process. Rossi’s patent was granted in Italy: whether or not he gets an international extension for it, it’s obvious that nobody can patent something which has already been patented in any other country in the world where patent laws are recognized.
    Andrea, go right on, don’t get discouraged — besides, I know that you are veritable lion.

    Christos Stremmenos, Prof. of Chemical Physics, University of Bologna (Ret.); former Ambassador for Greece in Rome.

  • R J Noonan

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    You can find a complete explanation of the physics of your reaction here:

    http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLEF1AE2CB9E299073

    This series of videos is the most cogent presentation I have ever seen. The math is
    included.

  • [...] species of Bosons.  I will not attempt to summarize the physics here, but readers are directed to the paper “Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System” by [...]

  • [...] species of Bosons.  I will not attempt to summarize the physics here, but readers are directed to the paper “Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System” by [...]

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ray Mc Lane:
    Thyank you for your information.
    I suggest you to contact
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Ray McLaine

    Dear Mr. Rossi:

    I am a retired Electronic Engineer. I have developed many hardware and software products and hold some patents in 3D graphics. There was a company that devloped a product called the Sun Catcher. It had a 30ft dish which followed the sun and heated a module at the focus point attached to a Sterling Engine and a 20KW generator. The Product was devloped by Sandia National Labs. The Sterling Engine, heat module and generator would be ideal for your e-cat. The Company filed Bankruptcy last year. The Technology did work and is available if you are interested. I was interested in distributing their products but they ran out of money before that could get the product into high volume production.

    My prayers are with you and all the people of the world that will benefit from your success.
    Let me know if I can be of any assistance in California.

    Best Regards,
    Ray McLaine

  • Daniel Telfer

    This may help in the future for electric models.
    A new class of doped nanobulk high-figure-of-merit thermoelectrics by scalable bottom-up assembly. Nature materials
    http://news.cnet.com/8301-11386_3-57361009-76/scientists-$40-microwave-zaps-better-heat-to-power-materials/
    http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nmat3213.html

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Alessandro:
    Thank you!
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Alessandro

    Caro sig. Rossi.
    La sto seguendo da molto. Più o meno da quando le prime notizie di fusione fredda si sono cominciate a vedere. Sono stato alla conferenza di Viareggio e sentito i suoi commenti. Trovo la sua invenzione l’unica vera soluzione futura al problema energetico mondiale. Vorrei poter usare la sue tecnologia in futuro, attendiamo news e aggiornamenti sullo svilupparsi della situazione.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Dr Pierre Clauzon :
    You are a Scientist of CEA of Paris, therefore I am really honoured of what you wrote.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea

  • Pierre Clauzon

    Dear Andrea,

    I was very impressed by your 28th of October 1MW successful test . You will find within this link what I publish in the blog of the french magazine Capital:

    http://libresechanges.blog.capital.fr/

    I would like to be among your first customers for the small e-cat in 2013 !

    Warm regards Pierre

  • W.Andrews

    Mr. Rossi,

    Thank you for the prompt reply. I am not connected in any way with Morgado’s company (Angel Labs LLC) and have no insight into what prototypes or proposals may be available. Your engineers would have to initiate the contact after exploring the benefits of the MYT engine and its integration with the E-Cat. However, I’m sure that Morgado would be extremely interested in any application as promising as yours and would be eager to work with you. The Russian E-Mobile is scheduled to hit world wide markets in 2012 and uses a copy of this engine to achieve remarkable MPG burning natural gas. Imagine this same car or one like it powered by an E-Cat’s compressed air that would run for 6 months without refueling.

    Once again, I have no vested interest in this engine company. I am a retired EE interested only in the advancement of technology.

    Best Regards,
    W. Andrews

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear W.Andrews:
    If there are real proposals for ready prototypes to be tested, we will be delighted to get them.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • W.Andrews

    Mr. Rossi

    I would strongly suggest that you look at R. Morgado’s “Mighty Yet Tiny” (MYT) revolutionary, rotary engine that operates on compressed air as well as many other types of biofuels. Morgado’s company is now producing lightweight field generators for the military using the MYT engine. Having only 26 moving parts, its 40 to 1 power to weight ratio dramatically reduces the weight and size of the generators. The new Russian car (E-Mobile) uses this engine to mechanically power a generator for its electric drive train. This engine would seamlessly match and utilize the air pressures of the E-Cat to power an efficient, lightweight electrical generator.

    Best Regards
    WA

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Lorenzo Actis:
    Please make your proposals to
    info@leonardocorp1996.com
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Best of luck, Dr. Rossi, and congrats on getting the NI contract to help with the controls. I hope the events of the next year will vindicate you.

  • Lorenzo Actis

    Caro Andrea,(permettimi di darti del tu)
    Complimenti per il lavoro che tu e la tua equipe state svolgendo. Seguo con entusiasmo l’evoluzione della vostra scoperta che promette di rivoluzionare il settore energetico. Contestualmente l’italia necessita ora piu che mai una tecnologia da brevettare, produrre ed esportare in tutto il mondo. Da giovane Ingegnere Gestionale Logistico e della Produzione vorrei contattarti privatamente per porti domande piu di carattere imprenditoriale che scientifico, sui futuri plant produttivi che prevedete di realizzare. Non voglio assolutamente farti perdere del tempo, anzi trovare spunti per potenziali sinergie.

    Cordialmente

    L.A.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Javier Becaria:
    The results have been published, see the links in this blog, or just Google “E-Cat report of October 28″
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Javier Becaria

    Dear Dr. Rossi,
    I am intrigued about the output of the E-CAT test last October 28th. Are you planning to publish the results? Is there another test planned for the future mayabe in North America?

    Best regards,
    Javier Becaria

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Pierre Clauzon,
    Yes, the 1 MW plant will be tested in our Bologna factory on the 28th of October.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Pierre Clauzon

    Caro Andrea,
    I was telling that the 1 MW test could be done at Bologna by the end of October and that the customer could be the operator… Could you confirm these good news ?
    Grazie per le risposte
    Warm regards
    Pierre

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Kim Patterson:
    Intriguing. Go on.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Kim Patterson

    I would consider

    Nomex® – For When the Heat’s On

    for the E-cat Housing Material

    Light Weight and thermally protective (used in Aircraft)

    Honey combed Fiberglass and or Aluminum

    Can be laminated externally for
    aesthetics ect..

    I was a draftsman and designed executive aircraft furniture

    It will do the Job.

    My design idea entry

    Kim

  • enzo bellato

    Caro Andrea Rossi, ancora complimenti. Due domande, se sono pertinenti: a che temperatura lavora l’interno del reattore? il flusso d’acqua che verrà trasformata in energia termica serve anche come regolatore della temperatura interna. Grazie per le risposte.

  • Silly stuff:

    Further thoughts on the logo…….

    In the fireplace can be a silhouette of the core reactor outside casing surrounded by “new” fire much like a log is surrounded by “old” fire. Only, the “new” fire needs to have a lot of green in it.

  • Not much of an artist here, but the logo I envision is a fuzzy kitten warming itself in front of an old fashioned fireplace that has new fire burning inside(not sure yet how to depict that “new fire”).

    The kitten is no special breed – a counterpart to everyman – the common man.

    Everycat, or, Every, the cat wears a collar that just has an “E” on the tag.

  • [...] showing the long promised  1 MW plant in Greece. But according to a post today in Rossi’s journal-of-nuclear-physics.com, he assures us that there will be a plant in the good old USA by October.“There are [...]

  • Andrea Rossi

    Caro Bellato Enzo:
    La ringrazio,
    A.R.

  • Grande, a mio parere sta giocando la partita con una strategia unica. Spiazza continuamente tutti e in questa maniera non da la possibilità di far organizzare gli squali. Se avessero avuto il tempo quanto avrebbero impiegato a organizzare un corteo ANTI TUTTO?. Grazie Andrea, metà delle persone stanno sognando e l’altra sta morendo di invidia.

  • Carlo Marcena

    Congratulations for yesterday test in Bologna.
    cm

  • From what I can find out, congratulations are in order.

    What fun!

  • Kim Patterson

    Gods Speed on your presentation
    in Bologna, Italy on 6th of October Mr Andrea Rossi

    Please Remember the people are in great anticipation of any and all
    news.

    Repect
    Kim

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Carlo Marcena:
    Mill’s Theory is interesting, but my theory is different.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • Carlo Marcena

    Dear Mr. Rossi,

    I am following your adventure since mid 2010 and, I have to say, I am still churning between “believe” and “not to believe”. But, apart from muy doubts, I think what you are doing is very important and, for the first time in this field of new energies, addressing the target market as nobody has done before. As for most important inventions in the past, theoretical shortcomings should not damp your efforts: go on with your tests and disclose results. These latter will give E-cat the necessary momentum to become a breakthrough (and what a breakthrough!) technology. Theory will follow.
    By the way: have you thought to explain what happens in your reactor by means of Mills Hydrino Theory?
    Regards, Carlo Marcena

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear L. Gefert:
    We use 5 nines Ni.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

  • L. Gefert

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    I believe commercially pure nickel, such as Nickel 200, still has ~0.15% carbon by weight, in addition to other impurities. Is the 400 degree C limit of the ecat device a function of the purity of the nickel used, where graphite will start to precipitate and coat the nickel particles at ~425 degrees C?

    Thanks,
    L.G.

  • Bradley Beeson

    Mr Rossi,

    This past weekend, I was privileged to serve as a Juror for the 2011 Solar Decathlon, here in Washington DC. This prestigious competition challenges university students to design, build and operate solar-powered, net-zero energy homes. The winner of the competition is the team that best blends affordability, consumer appeal, and design excellence with optimal energy production and maximum efficiency.

    While touring the homes, I could not help to think about how your technology could be implemented into their designs, and how disruptive it would be to so many of the participating companies. The thoughts left me with a strange mix of emotions, at once both breathtaking and heartbreaking.

    Best wishes to you, and I hope one day to see you delivering the keynote speech at the inaugural New Fire Decathlon. Viva la New Fire!

    Bradley Beeson
    Germantown, Maryland

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear L. Gefert:
    The E-Cat device does not depend on gravity.
    Warm Regards,
    A.R.

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