Passive cooling system for research reactors

V.A. Uzikov, I.V. Uzikova

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Research reactors include a wide range of civil and commercial installations, which, as a rule, are not used for power generation. Sometimes this category also includes experimental reactors, which can be more powerful than the research ones.

The main task of research reactors is to provide a source of neutrons for research and other purposes, and the process of their producing in the form of beams can be different depending on the purposes. The range of tasks that are set before these installations is wide, including analysis and testing of materials, production of radioisotopes. Among the applications are nuclear power, nuclear fusion researches, environmental studies, the development of new materials, the development of drugs and nuclear medicine.

As a rule, in such reactors circuits with forced cooling of the reactor core by the coolant pumped by pumps are used, but low-power reactors sometimes use a circuit with natural circulation of the heat carrier, for example, in the reactor IR-200 (Sevastopol, Crimea). Despite the advantages of the passive principle of reactor core cooling, it is practically not used because of the disadvantages of the circuits with lifting motion of the coolant in the core. Moreover, these schemes of heat removal from the reactor can not be called completely passive, since a secondary circuit with forced movement of the coolant is used.

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11 comments to Passive cooling system for research reactors

  • Andrea Rossi

    1- I AM NOT A PROF
    2- a photon cannot have a rest mass, because it cannot be stationary relative to any inertial reference frame. A photon is always moving at the speed of light relative to any reference frame.
    Warm Regards,

  • Perry

    Prof Rossi,
    How do you calculate the rest mass of a photon?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Thank you for your suggestion,
    Warm regards,

  • Lars

    Dear Andrea,
    I suggest as a name for the control system “RECO”, meaning “Rossi E-Cat Operator”. The name includes your name and the environment friendly ECO and also that it is RECOmmended for a healthy planet.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Christopher calder:
    Thank you for your insight and the links,
    Warm Regards,

  • Dear Mr. Rossi,

    As you well know, nature created the fundamental mathematical relationship now known as E=mc2. Humans only discovered it; they didn’t invent it. The straightforward mathematical discovery by Dr. Karl Zeller and Dr. Ned Nikolov has many enemies. If their finding is proven accurate, it could bankrupt the wind and solar industries and put heavy pressure on politicians to end biofuel mandates. It would embarrass most politicians and almost all climate scientists, even those who believe carbon dioxide has no significant effect on Earth temperatures.

    The Zeller-Nikolov climate finding uses official NASA data to quantify the average temperatures of the hard surfaced satellite bodies orbiting our Sun. The formula is not applicable to the gas planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Zeller and Nikolov claim to be able to determine the long term average temperature of Venus, Earth, Mars, Titan (a moon of Saturn), and Triton (a moon of Neptune) by using just two informational values: their distance from the Sun and their atmospheric pressure.

    Zeller and Nikolov have found that the gaseous composition of atmospheres is immaterial to determining long term average temperatures. For example, the atmosphere of Venus is composed of 96.5% carbon dioxide, while Earth’s atmosphere contains only .04% carbon dioxide, yet those vast differences are irrelevant to the mathematical calculations required to determine average temperatures. This mathematical proof tells us that the atmosphere of Venus contains 2,412 times the percentage of carbon dioxide as Earth, yet that staggering amount of CO2 has no effect on the average temperature of Venus. Carbon dioxide and all the other atmospheric gases only contribute to temperature by their physical mass and resultant atmospheric pressure. Zeller and Nikolov claim that their predictions for planets and moons are accurate to within one degree Celsius, a finding so precise that coincidence can reasonably be ruled out.

    The Zeller-Nikolov discovery means that Earth’s atmosphere keeps us warm via gas compression heating under the weight of Earth’s approximately 300 mile thick atmosphere, not by any greenhouse effect. An actual greenhouse has a glass wall enclosing it. Earth has no enclosure and is open to space, so the two scientists suggest that the term “greenhouse effect” be replaced by “atmospheric thermal enhancement.” Heat is created by compressing atmospheric gases through the pull of gravity. Similarly, in a diesel engine a piston is used to compress gases to generate enough heat to eliminate the need for a spark plug. The tremendous gravitational pull on the enormous mass of Earth’s atmosphere combined with solar radiation warms our planet just enough to allow carbon based life forms to flourish.

    Despite multiple technical reviews by scientists around the world, no one has found error in their mathematical formula and specific computations. Objections raised against their discovery are largely that it does not fit accepted climate theories which are professionally and politically popular. Climate science has become a tool of Left Wing political power and an enormous money making profession for scientists, professors, universities, state and federal government employees, and a thousand and one green scam businesses. Just think of all the billions of dollars being spent on theories of climate change and the mandated false remedies. No doom equals no costly remedies and no profits for the salesmen of fear.

    Real science has proven that you cannot control the weather with windmills and solar panels any more than you can control the weather with bowling balls and statues of dead politicians, yet the climate fear business continues. Even Donald Trump sold out the long term security and affordability of the human food supply to the biofuel lobby. Science, reason, and common sense do not rule in Washington, D.C.. Special interests and bare-knuckle greed are still the fundamental emperors of America.

    The doomsday anti-carbon theories of Al Gore and Michael E. Mann have never been proven by empirical testing. Climate gurus keep pushing the date of catastrophe into the future because the global doom they keep predicting never arrives. What has arrived are ordinary and expected minor fluctuations in Earth’s climate that have been going on since Earth was formed. Ask yourself, when did the Earth have a climate that was more pleasant and beneficial to mankind than the climate we have today? The honest answer is simply *never*.

    Dr. Karl Zeller confesses to being a “bleeding heart liberal,” not a conservative or an agent of the fossil fuel industry. Zeller states that his only interested is in provable science, and that “This climate controversy is costing billions, making the wrong folks rich, and keeps us from solving real environmental problems.”

    I first heard about this discovery in September, 2018, and at first I thought it sounded crazy. Over time, and after doing background research, I have found their conclusions to be very credible, and the clarity of their mathematics difficult to argue with. If their gas compression theory is false, how did they get their mathematical formulas to work so precisely? Qualified scientists should either expose their mistakes or applaud their mathematical formulas and theory as useful tools for better understanding climate science. All science progresses through an open-minded peer review process, not through censorship of new ideas for political and financial reasons. Please remember that a mathematical finding, if proven valid, is a real phenomenon; as real as finding a diamond in a river bed. Nature creates fundamental mathematical relationships; humans only discover them.

    My personal interest is in saving the human food supply from myopic environmentalists who have unconsciously become enemies of affordably priced food. What good is food if it becomes too expensive for ordinary people to buy? All our food is made of carbon with the help of fossilized carbon based fuels. The inherently inefficient renewable energy schemes: wind, solar, and biofuels, have caused food cost inflation and increased environmental damage and economic destruction all over the world. A war on carbon is a war on food, a war on poor people, and a war on life itself. Carbon is the essential ingredient and energy source of all life on Earth. Carbon creatures fighting carbon equals suicide, not science.

    For links to details about the Zeller-Nikolov finding, please go to
    Please be sure to watch the 4 minute YouTube interview with Dr. Karl Zeller. It has David vs. Goliath significance and drama.

    Christopher Calder – Nonprofit food supply security advocate

  • Sydney Johnston

    Dr Vitalky Uzikov and Irina Uzikova:
    Thank you for your answer.
    I understand you are a specialist in the upgrade and maintenance of nuclear power plants in Russia. Thank you for sharing with us your knowledge.

  • Irina and Vitaly Uzikov

    Dear Sydney!

    Sorry for the late reply. There are power reactors with natural circulation (for example, there is a VK-50 reactor in Dimitrovgrad), and research reactors with natural circulation, for example, there is an IR-100 reactor in Sevastopol. However, their cooling system is not completely passive, since for heat removal it is necessary to use systems with circulation pumps that depend on power supply. The proposed cooling systems are primarily for use in research reactors and are designed to reduce the cost of reactor installations and to increase their safety and reliability, which will enable their wider application. If you are interested in any technical details, you can contact directly by mail and we will be happy to answer specific questions.

    With respect, Irina and Vitaly Uzikov

  • Sydney Johnston

    Dear Dr Vitaly Uzokov and Irina Uzikov:
    Very interesting paper. Has this cooling system been already applied in nuclear power plants under your direction or control? If yes, did you report any trouble?
    Thank you if you can answer,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Thank you for the suggestion, I passed it on to our Informatic Guy.
    Warm Regards,

  • keV

    Hi Andrea,

    I’m sure you have designed the security model of your remotely managed, on-site control systems well – and I’m certainly not asking for any details of that here :¬) But I think you should consider baking the security directly into the hardware, as this is something that may fit your specific security needs well. This is called “kernel to edge security” and will prevent the system from booting/running if any code change occurs. Looking at the new BlackBerry Spark Communications SDK might be a good starting point for ideas.

    Wishing you all the best for the launch of your pay for heat service,

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