*By*

*U.V.S. Seshavatharam
DIP QA Engineer, Lanco Industries Ltd, Srikalahasti-517641, A.P, India
E-mail: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com*

*Prof. S. LAKSHMINARAYANA
Department Of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Vizag-530003, AP, India.
E-mail: lnsrirama@yahoo.com*

**Abstract 1:**

`N’ being the Avagadro number, it is suggested [2, 3] that strong nuclear gravitational constant (*GS*) is N2 times the classical gravitational constant (*GC*). Elementary charge (e) and the proposed (*GS*) plays a vital role in strong interaction and nuclear space-time curvature. Considering the present signicance of Avagadro number [4] it is clear that, existence of the classical gravitational constant (*GC*) is a consequence of the existence of the strong nuclear gravitational constant (*GS*). It is also suggested that there exists 2 kinds of mass units. They can be called as `observed mass units’ and `hidden mass units’.

X*E* ≈ 295.0606339 being the lepton mass generator [1, 2, 3] hidden mass unit is XE times smaller than the observed mass unit. This idea can be applied to leptons and all the strongly interacting particles. For electron its hidden mass unit is 3.087292 x 10^-33 Kg.

Hidden mass unit of the previously proposed [1, 2, 3] strongly interacting fermion (M*Sf c^*2 ≈ 105.3255407 MeV) is M*Sf c^*2/X*E ≈ *0.35696236 MeV*.*

X*E*, the strong interaction mass generator = X*S *≈ 8.803723452 and 0.35696236 MeV plays a vital role in understanding and coupling the semi empirical mass formula with TOE [2]. (αX*E*) is the ratio of coulomb energy coefficient (Ec) and the proposed (MSf c^2/XE) .

Proton and neutron rest masses are co related in a unied approach. G*S*, hidden mass units of electron and super symmetric [1] (M*Sf* ) play a vital role in the origin of ћ.

Electron`s discrete angular momentum is due the strong nuclear gravity and discrete number of super symmetric nucleons or (M*Sf*). All these coincidences clearly suggest that existence of the strong nuclear gravitational constant (G*S*) and existence of the strongly interacting fermion (MSf c^2) ≈ 105.3255 MeV are true and real.

[1] U. V. S. Seshavatharam and S. Lakshminarayana. Super Symmetry in Strong and Weak interactions. IJMPE, Vol.19, No.2, (2010), p.263-280.

[2] U. V. S. Seshavatharam and S. Lakshminarayana. Strong nuclear gravitational constant and the origin of nuclear planck scale. Progress in Physics, vol. 3, July, 2010, p. 31-38.

[3] U. V. S. Seshavatharam and S. Lakshminarayana. Avagadro number and the mystery of TOE and Quantum Theory. Under review of Journal of Nuclear Physics, Italy. (Old version is accepted for publication).

[4] Avogadro constant, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

**Abstract 2:**

`N’ being the Avagadro number, it is suggested that there exists a charged lepton mass unit m*L* = 3.087292 x 10^-33 Kg in such way a that its electromagnetic and classical gravitational force ratio is N^2. Assuming that *N* neutrons transforms into 1/2*N* neutrons, 1/2*N* protons and 1/2*N* electrons a simple relation is proposed in between the lepton mass generator X*E* [1,2] strong gravitational constant G*S* [2], classical gravitational constant G*C* and the Avagadro number *N*. X*E* being the proportionality ratio electron rest mass is proportional to its charge e and inversely proportional to *N* and √G*C.*

*M*uon and tau rest masses are tted. With a new (uncertain) quantum number at n=3, a new heavy charged lepton at 42260 MeV is predicted.

Considering N, 2N, 3N… moles X*E* takes discrete values and it can be shown that ћ is a true unied compound physical constant. A simple relation is proposed for estimating [2] the mass of strong interaction mass unit M*Sf c^*2 ≈ 105.398 MeV. From super symmetry [1] considering the proposed value of fermion-boson mass ratio = ψ = 2.2623411 values of nuclear stability factor S*f* and strong interaction mass generator X*S* are revised in a unified manner.

Proton and neutron rest masses are tted to 4 decimal places. It it is suggested that X*E* sin(θ*w*) ≈ 1/α . Finally in sub quark physics [1] the proposed strongly interacting fermionic mass unit 11450 MeV is tted with ln (N^2).

PACS numbers: 12.10-g,21.30.-x.

**1. Introduction**

*C*establishing a relation in between charged particle’s mass and charge is impossible. Till now Avagadro number [3] is a mystery. The basic counting unit in chemistry, the mole, has a special name Avogadro’s number in honor of the Italian scientist Amadeo Avogadro (1776-1856). The commonly accepted denition of Avogadro number is the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of the isotope 6C

*12*and the

*1.1. Charge-mass unication*

*1.2. Super symmetry*

*1.3. Planck mass, neutrino mass and Avagadro number*

**2. Proposed new ideas in papers [1, 2]**

*S*= 6.94273 x 10^31 m^3/kg sec^2.

*Sf*c^2 = 105.38 MeV and M

*Gf*c^2 = 11450 MeV.

*S*= 8.8034856 and it can be considered as the inverse of the strong coupling constant.

*C*= 0.769 MeV.

*2.1. Nuclear force and charge distribution radii*

*S*, if it assumedthat charectristic total energy of the nucleon in the nucleus is close to the rest energy of electron m

*e*c^2, the nuclear force is

*Sf*c^2 is the assumed characteristic strong interaction fermionic mass unit=105.383 MeV, RC can be considered as the nuclear characteristic charge distribution radius.

*2.2. Nuclear charge radius, Avagadro number and the Bohr radius*

*C*m

*e*/c^2 = classical Black hole radius of electron, R

*C*= Nuclear charge radius ≈ 1.2157 fermi. This equation can be considered as a key observation for the implementation of Avgadro number in true unication. Using this equation value of the classical gravitational constant G

*C*can be estimated accurately with the microscopic physical constants.

*S*equation (7) can be simplied as

*S*m

*e/*c^2 ≈ strong nuclear black hole radius of electron ≈ 1:409 fermi ≈ R

*0,*can be considered as the nuclear mass distribution radius. R

*C*≈ 1.2157 fermi is the nuclear charge distribution radius and geometric mean of R

*C*and R

*0 is √*R

*0*R

*C*≈ 1.309 fermi. By considering “1 mole nucleons”, “2 mole nucleons”, “3 mole nucleons” etc XE takes “discrete” values like X

*E,*2X

*E*, 3X

*E*: Using this idea the origin of nh may be understood. Considering the nucleus-electron system, interestingly to a very good accuracy it is noticed that

*Sf*, G

*C*and N in the nuclear physics can be understood. Considering equations (7) and (29) it can be suggested that, (N=2) represents a measure of unied gauge coupling strength.

**3. Mole neutrons & relation between electron rest mass and its charge**

*E*is a number and can be called as `lepton mass generator’ and E

*L*=

Authors in the previous papers [1, 2 ] shown many applications of X

*E*in particle

*E*)^-1 = sin(θ

*w*). It plays a crucial role in estimating the charged lepton rest masses. Ratio of Up and Down quark masses is αX

*E.*It plays a very interesting role in tting energy coefficients of the semi empirical mass formula. It can be used for tting the nuclear size with “compton wavelength of nucleon”. It is noticed that ratio of “nuclear volume” and “A nucleons compton volume” is X

*E*. It can be called as the nuclear “volume ratio” factor. In this paper in a unied approach X

*E*is redined as

*S*= strong nuclear gravitational constant and G

*C*= classical gravitational constant.

*E*takes “discrete” values like X

*E*, 2X

*E*, 3X

*E*… Using this idea the origin of

*nћ*may be understood.

*S*every one will be surprised. But it is a fact. In the paper [2] authors proposed many applications of G

*S*in nuclear physics. If neutron is a strongly interacting particle and its origin is related to G

*S*it is reasonable and a must to implement GS in weak decay of neutron. Considering equation (17) electron rest mass can be given as

*S*≈ 6.950631729 x 10^31 m^3/kgsec^2. From equation (15) X

*E*can be obtained as

m

*L*= 3.087292 x 10^-33 Kg in such way a that its electromagnetic and classical gravitational force ratio is N^2. It plays a crucial role in fitting the rest masses of muon and tau.

**4. Fitting of muon and tau rest masses**

*C*= coulombic energy coefficient of the semi empirical mass formula =0.769 MeV, E

*A*= assymmetry energy coefficient of the semi empirical mass formula=23.86 MeV and X

*E*= proposed lepton mass generator = 294.8183 and n = 0, 1, 2. In this paper authors simplied equation (23) as

*L*≈ 1.732 x 10^-3 MeV.

tting at n=2 it is quite reasonable and natural to predict a new heavy charged lepton at n=3. Electron was discovered in 1897. Muon was discovered in 1937. Tau was detected in a series of experiments between 1974 and 1977. Positron predicted in 1928 and discovered in 1936. The antiproton and antineutron were only postulated in 1931 and 1935 respectively and discovered in 1956. The charged pion was postulated in 1935 and discovered in 1947 and the neutral pion was postulated in 1938 and discovered in 1950.

The 6 quarks were proposed and understood in between 1964 and 1977. By selecting the proper quantum mechanical rules if one is able to conrm the existence of the number n=3, existence of the new lepton can be understood.

At the same time one must critically examine the propsed relation for its nice and accurate tting of the 3 observed charged leptons. Unfortunately inputs of this expression are new for the standard model. Hence one can not easily incorporate this expression in standard model. Till now in SM there is no formula for tting the lepton masses accurately. It seems there is something missing from the SM. Not only that the basic inputs of SM are leptons and quarks. Now in this propsed expression authors tried to t and understand the origin of the fundamental building blocks of electromagnetic interaction! Same authors tried to t and understand the origin of quarks in the paper [1] with the electron rest mass as a reference mass unit. More interesting thing is that in the paper [1] authors proposed the existence of `integral charge’ qaurk fermions and`integral charge’ quark bosons. Eventhough this idea is against to the SM, observed strong interaction particles charge-mass spectrum can be understood very easily. Super symmetry plays a key role in this.

**5. Strong interaction mass unit M**

*Sf*c^2*Sf*c^2 ≈ 105.38 MeV. It is noticed that

*Sf*c^2 depends on X

*E*and G

*S*.

**6. Proton, neutron rest masses & the nuclear stability factor (S**

*f*)*P*c^2 = rest energy of proton, m

*N*c^2 = rest energy of neutron, m

*e*c^2 = rest energy of electron and M

*Sf*= proposed strong interaction fermion mass unit ≈ 105.398 MeV. Interesting thing is that, 2G

*C*M

*Sf*/c^2 can be considered as the classical black hole radius of M

*Sf*and ћ/M

*Sf*c is the compton length of M

*Sf*. This equation clearly suggests the individual roles of M

*Sf*, G

*C*and N in the nuclear physics. On simplication

*S*M

*Sf/*c^2 can be considered as the strong nuclear black hole radius of M

*Sf*. Considering the average mass of nucleon

*e*c is the classical radius of electron. On simplication

*S*and the strong interaction mass unit M

*Sf*plays a key role in understanding the origin of rest mass of nucleon.

*6.1. Fitting of nucleon rest masses upto 4 decimal places*

*f*= 2X

*S*^2 ≈ 155.0 and X

*S*= Strong interaction mass generator ≈ √(G

*S*M^2

*Sf*/ћc). It is noticed that proportionality constant being √(1/S

*f*) ratio of rest energy of proton and charged lepton potential can be given as

*P*c^2 = Rest energy of proton, E

*L*= characteristic charged lepton potential ≈ 1.732 x 10^-3 MeV.

*P*c^2 + m

*N*c^2) is more appropriate than 2m

*P*c^2,

*E*)≈27.67394^0 and angle of jump for boson is 55.34788^0. Boson in one cycle makes 78 jumps and this is very close to X

*S*^2≈77.6.

**ψ**plays a crucial role in neutron and proton mass generation. Its square root value is just crossing 1.5. This number 1.5 can also be attributed to the energy ratio of proposed [2] nuclear coulombic energy constant 0.769 MeV and the electron rest mass 0.511 MeV. But it is also not giving the correct values of mP and m

*N*. Values of

m

*P*and m

*N*depends on S

*f,*X

*E*and m

*e*. To a very good accuracy it is noticed that

**ψ**= proposed strong interaction fermion – boson mass ratio – 2.2623412 ≈ ln(6+√13) and √

**ψ =**1.504108104.

*S*is very close to the original denition of X

*S*= √(G

*S*M

*Sf^*2/ћc) = 8.809788028.

*P*= 1.672641849 x 10^-27 Kg and m

*N*= 1.67493932 x 10^-27 Kg. The co-data recommended [9] values are m

*P*= 1.672621637 x 10^-27 Kg and m

*N*= 1.674927211 x 10^-27.

*6.2. Nucleon-proton stability*

*S*=Stable proton number corresponding to mass number A. By considering A as the fundamental input its corresponding stable Z can be obtained as

*S*can be called as the stable mass number of Z. After rounding o for even (Z)

values, if obtained A

*S*is odd consider A

*S*– 1, for odd (Z) values if obtained A

*S*is even, consider A

*S*– 1. For very light odd elements this seems to be not fitting. Hence for Z≤9 this correction idea is not applied. At Z = 47 obtained A

*S*= 108.24. Its round o value is 108 which is even. Its nearest odd number is 108-1=107. At Z = 92 obtained A

*S*= 238.56. Its round o value is 239 which is odd. Its nearest even number is 239-1=238. At Z = 29 obtained A

*S*= 63.42. Its round o value is 63 which is odd. Correction is not required. At Z = 68 obtained AS = 165.81. Its round o value is 166 which is even. Correction is not required.

**7. Estimation and signicance of sin (θ**

*w*)**8. Estimation of the strongly interacting subquark fermion M**

*Gf*c^2 and the strongly interacting subquark boson M*Gb*c^2*Gf*c

**^**2 ≈ 11450 MeV in subquark physics by using which quark gluon masses can be estimated. It is noticed that

*Gb*c

**^**2 can be given as

**ψ**=proposed strong interaction fermion-boson mass ratio=2.2623412.

*Gf*c^2 plays a crucial role in estimating the strongly interacting fermi-gluonic masses of eective quark fermions as

*Gfe*=effective quark fermi-gluon mass and Qfe=effective quark fermion mass. M

*Gb*c^2 plays a crucial role in estimating the strongly interacting boso-gluonic masses of quark bosons as

*Gb*=quark boso-gluon mass and Q

*b*=quark boson mass.

**Conclusions**

**Acknowledgements**

**References**

[1] U. V. S. Seshavatharam and S. Lakshminarayana. Super Symmetry in Strong and Weak interactions. IJMPE, Vol.19, No.2, (2010), p.263-280.

[2] U. V. S. Seshavatharam and S. Lakshminarayana. Strong nuclear gravitational constant and the origin of nuclear planck scale. Progress in Physics, vol. 3, July, 2010, p. 31-38.

[3] Avogadro constant, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avogadro constant.

[4] Einsteins Last Dream: The Space -Time Unication of Fundamental Forces, Physics News, Vol.12, No.2 (June 1981), p.36. (Address by Professor Abdus Salam at the UNESCO Celebration of the Centenary of Einstein’s birth, 7 May 1979, Paris.)

[5] Tilman Sauer. Einsteins Unied Field Theory Program. The Cambridge Companion to Einstein, M. Janssen, C. Lehner (eds), Cambridge University Press.

[6] David Gross. Einstein and the search for Unication. http:worldscibooks.com/etextbook/6259.

[7] Hawking S.W. A Brief History of Time. Book. Bantam Dell Publishing Group. 1988.

[8] Particle Data Group (W.-M. Yao et al.), J. Phys. G 33 (2006) 1, http://pdg.bbb.gov.

[9] P.J. Mohr and B.N. Taylor. CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical

Constants.2007. http://physics.nist.gov/constants.

[10] P. Roy Chowdhury et al. Modied Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula with isotonic shift and new driplines. (http://arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0405080v4)

Deborah Rivera:

Thank you from the whole Team,

Warm Regards,

A.R.

Congratulations to you and your team: great work, we all are with you with our spirit!

Respected Sir/Madam,

Till today there is no reason for the question: why there exists 6 individual quarks? Till today no experiment reported a ‘free quark’. Authors humble opinion is – nuclear charge (either positive or negative) constitutes 6 different flavors and each flavor holds certain mass. ‘charged flavor’ can be called as a ‘quark’. It is neither a fermion nor a boson. A ‘fermion’ is a container for different charges, a ‘charge’ is a container for different flavors and each ‘flavor’ is a container for certain ‘matter’. If charged matter rests in a ‘fermionic container’ it is a fermion and if charged matter rests in a ‘bosonic container’ it is a boson. The fundamental questions to be answered are : what is a charge? why and how opposite charges attracts each other? why and how there exists a fermion? and why and how there exists a boson?

Here interesting thing is that if 6 flavors are existing with 6 different masses then a single charge can have one or two or more flavors simultaneously. Since charge is a common property, mass of the ‘multi flavor charge’ seems to be the geometric mean of the mass of each flavor. If ‘charge with flavor’ is called as a ‘quark’ then ‘charge with multi flavors’ can be called as a ‘hybrid quark’. Hybrid quark generates a multi flavor baryon. It is a property of ‘strong interaction space – time – charge’. This is just like ‘different tastes’ or ‘different smells’ of matter. Important consequence of this idea is that- for generating a baryon there is no need to couple 3 fractional charge quarks.

In this paper authors tried to implement the super symmetry concepts in quark and sub quark physics. The basic idea is that for each and every quark fermion there exists a corresponding super symmetric quark boson. Proposed quark fermion and quark boson ratio is Obtained top quark boson mass is 80523 MeV and its assumed charge is (±e). This is close to charged W mass (average with CERN UA2 data) = 80.454 ± 0.059 GeV. This may be a coincidence or there is some mystery behind the charged weak boson! In this way if one is able to predict the existence of (quark) bosons, there is no need to assume that – any two quark fermions couples together to form a meson. Note that till today no experiment reported the existence of a ‘fractional charge’. Thus it can be interpreted that nature allows only ‘integral charges’. Hence it can be assumed that quark fermions and quark bosons possess ‘unit charge’. This is the beginning of integral charge quark super symmetry.

Due to strong interaction there is a chance of coupling any two quark bosons. If any two oppositely charged quark bosons couples together then a neutral quark boson can be generated. It may be called as a neutral meson. Due to strong interaction by any chance if any quark boson couples with any quark fermion then a neutral baryon or baryon with ‘±2e’ can be generated. This idea is very similar to the ‘photon absorption’ by electron. When a weakly interacting electron is able to absorb a boson, in strong interaction it is certainly possible. More over if a baryon couples with two or three quark bosons then the baryon mass increases and charge also changes. Here also if the system follows the principle– unlike charges attracts each other – in most of the cases baryon charge changes from ‘±e’ to neutral and neutral to ‘±e’. In rare cases baryon with ‘±2e’can be generated.

Thanking you,

yours obediently,

UVS.Seshavatharam.

What a well crafted blog post you have right here. You actually managed to truly high light the important aspects that really matter. I really enjoy reading through your site, the quality of the data is superb and your writing style certainly makes it easy to digest and fully grasp. Fantastic! Keep up the good work.

We agree with you: AGNI is an important approach to through light on elementary particles.

A.R.

RESPECTED SIR,FINE APPROACH TO THROUGH LIGHT ON ELEMENTRY PARTICLES,QUANTA OF CHARGE THEIR UNIFICATION.THANKS FOR PROVIDING SO MUCH VALUABLE INFORMATION.

finally found somewhere with useful details. thanks alot and keep it coming

Very interesting, also for possible theoretical declinations in the fusion models.

With the occasion we want to inform our Readers that Enrico Billi, an Italian Physic researcher from the University of Bologna who works in China, has sent us an important paper of his, under Peer reviewing at the moment, that probably will be published in January on the Journal Of Nuclear Physics.

The Board Of Advisers

I must say i must finish to read in detail the publication, but seems interesting also connecting this study with the news i attach below:

http://www.physorg.com/news/2010-11-physics-particle.html

where researchers from FermiLab may be found the forth flavor neutrino