Hydrogen/Nickel cold fusion probable mechanism

Prof. Ch. E. Stremmenos


Leaving aside for the moment any rigorous theoretical approach based on quantitative analyses, I would like to focus, qualitatively only, on the subject of shielding of dispersed protons in the electronic cloud within the crystal structure. The Focardi-Rossi approach considers this shielding a basic requirement for surpassing the Coulomb barrier between the hydrogen nuclei (protons) and the Nickel lattice nuclei, resulting into release of energy, which is a fact, through a series of exothermic nuclear processes leading to transmutations, decays, etc.

The reasoning presented in this note is based on elementary considerations of

·    The hydrogen atom (Bohr) in its fundamental energy state
·    The Heisenberg uncertainty principle
·    The high speed of nuclear reactions (10ˆ-20 sec)

The hydrogen atom (Bohr) in its fundamental state, in the absence of energy perturbations, remains indefinitely in its stationary state shown below. This is due to the in-phase wave (de Broglie), which follows the “circular” path of its single orbiting electron. The wave length and radius of the “circular” path are determined by the fundamental energy state of this atom.

When hydrogen atoms come in contact with the metal (Ni), they abandon their stationary state as they deposit their electrons in the conductivity band of the metal, and due to their greatly reduced volume, compared to that of their atom, the hydrogen nuclei (naked protons) readily diffuse into the defects of the nickel crystalline structure as well as in tetrahedral or octahedral void spaces of the crystal lattice.

It should be underlined that, in addition to the deposited hydrogen electrons, in the nickel mass included are also electrons of the chemical potential of the metal. Jointly these electrons constitute the conductivity electronic cloud, distributed in energy bands (Fermi), and quasi free to move throughout the metallic mass.

In this dynamic state of “non-localized” plasma, based on the uncertainty principle (Heisenberg),

it is conceivable that, for a very short time period (e.g.  10ˆ-18 sec), a series of neutral mini atoms of hydrogen could be formed, in an unstable state, of various size and energy level, distributed within the Fermi band, which is enlarged due to the very short time (Heisenberg).

The neutral mini-atoms of high energy and very short wave length – which is in phase with the “cyclic” orbit (de Broglie) – are statistically captured be the nickel nuclei of the crystal structure with the speed of nuclear reactions (10ˆ-20 sec).

For these mini-atoms to fuse with the nickel nuclei, apart from their neutral character for surpassing the Coulomb barrier, they must have dimensions smaller than 10ˆ-14 m, where nuclear cohesion forces, of high intensity but very short range, are predominant. It is assumed that only a percentage of such atoms satisfy this condition (de Broglie).

The above considerations are based only on an intuitive approach and I trust this phenomenon could be tackled in a systematic and integrated way through the “theory of time dependent perturbations” by employing the appropriate Hamiltonian, which includes time:

The mechanism proposed by Focardi – Rossi, verified by mass spectroscopy data, which predicts transmutation of a nickel nucleus to an unstable copper nucleus (isotope), remains in principle valid. The difference is that inside the unstable copper nucleus, produced from the fusion of a hydrogen mini-atom with a nickel nucleus, is trapped the mini-atom electron (β-), which in my opinion undergoes in-situ annihilation, with the predicted (Focardi-Rossi) decay β+ of the new copper nucleus.

The β+ and β- annihilation (interaction of matter and anti-matter) would lead to the emission of a high energy photon, γ, (Einstein) from the nucleus of the now stable copper isotope and a neutrin to conserve the lepton number. However, based on the principle of conservation of momentum, as a result of the backlash of this nucleus, the photon energy γ is divided into kinetic energy of this nucleus of large mass (heat) and a photon of low frequency.

Furthermore, it should be noted that the system does not exhibit the Mössbauer* phenomenon for two reasons:

1.  The copper nucleus is not part of the nickel crystal structure and behaves as an isolated atom in quasi gaseous state
2.  Copper, as a chemical element, does not exhibit the Mössbauer phenomenon.

In conclusion, it should be underlined that the copper nucleus thermal perturbation, as a result of its mechanical backlash(heat), is transferred to its encompassing nickel lattice and propagated, by in phase phonons (G. Preparata), through the entire nano-crystal. This could explain why in cold fusion the released energy is mainly in the form of heat and the produced (low) γ radiation can be easily shielded.


Prof. Ch. E. Stremmenos   (ATHENS,  DIC. 1910)

220 comments to Hydrogen/Nickel cold fusion probable mechanism

  • is this no effect on the global warming?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Same answer I just gave to Robert.
    Warm Regards,

  • L.

    Dear Dr Andrea Rossi:
    Did you receive the evidence a Reader talked about the fact that Mr Weaver, Mr Jed Rothwell, Mr Abdul Lomax have been paid from IH to assassinate your character and libel your sustainers, or persons positively oriented toward you, after the beginning of the litigation? Do you have evidence of money that changed hands in this context?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Evelyne Knapp:
    It is not ready, I did not yet receive enough supportive peer reviewing.
    Warm Regards,

  • Evelyne Knapp

    Dr Rossi:
    What about your theoretical paper in preparation?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Sharleen Gorden:
    Yes, it is necessary. Right now, at 06.40 of Monday August 24th, the 1 MW E-Cat is working stable. Night of study in view.
    Warm Regards,

  • Sharleen Gorden

    Andrea Rossi:
    Are you continuing to stay 16 hours per day inside the factory where is installed the 1 MW E-Cat? How is going “She” today?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gerry Keihl:
    What you write makes me envision a parallel between LENR and Mankind Induced Global Warming Issue. They have in common one thing: a group of biased- at -a -price “mainstream scientists” that assassinate full time everything that is in collision line with the agenda of the lobbies that pay them one way of the other ( not necessarily money, can also be a career improvement in some field).
    I have noticed that the guys ( that in the beautiful book written by Naomi Oreskes ” The collapse of western civilization” are called the ‘Merchants of Doubts’) are few, and are a strong minority respect the huge mass of respectable scientists and industrial concerns that have accepted to take seriously in consideration the LENR. But they are full time writing in all the chain of the more prestigious publications, where they have free access due to many factors, not least their professional undisputable credibility- this is the reason for which they have been chosen by the lobbies; if possible, they try to assassinate also the characters of their targets ( as happened to me, even if due to my experience such attempts are tennis balls against a tank). So, a relatively small group of well organized scientists make unheard of a major number of scientists not less important than them, or important industrial concerns that have better to do than follow all their elucubrations.
    Obviously, to oppose a lobby to the course of History is strategically a loser, even if can be tactically a winner. Now, after thirty years of global warming discussions and experience, the mass of scientists that think the global warming to be also a mankind product is prevailing. Returning to the LENR: I noticed that for what concerns the LENR, about 80% of the scientists I have read about are not biased against LENR, while 20% is negatively biased, but the last are more powerfully organized with the media, so they are prevailing in the collective unconscious field, notwithstanding the positive attitude of Nobel Prize Laureates (Brian Josephson), top level Professors of Universities of all the world, like Boston MIT, Stockolm, Uppsala, Bologna, Osaka, Moskow, India, China,etc etc, world leading scientific concerns like NASA, Lockeed Martin, Elforsk, Airbus, Volvo, NRL, etc,etc,etc: as you see, I am listing huge, huge entities: but the tactics of the biased -lobby induced scientists tactically are prevailing, so far: why I am sure that strategically they are a bunch of losers? Because you cannot stop the course of History and the History is structured in a way such that if , for example ( to use an issue I am acquainted with) the E-Cat works in factories and houses, (F9), they will expand in the market by the millions of units and no lobby, no biased trumpet more or less prestigious will stop it. An anectode is floating on the surface of the river of my memory that is flowing in my mind right now: when Bill Gates in the seventies proposed to a gorilla of the huge computers of those times to finance his idea, the gorilla answered that the idea to bring a computer on the table of a housewife was the biggest stupidity he ever heard about…
    Warm Regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Seymour Henderlight:
    I know about nanocomposite power generators made by AMES Research Center. Can be useful to spare batteries for remote uses to power sensors. Piezoelectric materials convert applied strain into electricity; for small power they make sense, otherwise their efficiency is very low. Can be useful to power remote sensors using existing and wasted vibrations or mechanical strains.
    Nothing to do with our technology.
    Warm Regards,

  • Seymour Henderlight

    Dr Rossi: are you informed that there are electric generators based on piezoelectric systems ? Can be useful for the E-Cat?

  • Gerry Keihl

    Dear Andrea Rossi: about what you said of the last Pope’s Encyclic: you know there are many scientists, probably the majority, that think mankind activities have no effect on the global warming?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Probably you refer to the plant of Dixon Ridge Farms of Sacramento, California. No, this people are not nuts! They use nuts, though, to make electric power. It is a big concern that collect, dry and sell nuts. They have resolved the problem of their wastes ( nutshells) processing them by means of a fermentation system to make biogas; then they make electric power burning the gas in a genset, while the residuals from the biogas fermentation are used as fertilizers in the fields where they crop nuts. Genial, not nuts.
    Warm Regards,

  • Wrannaalors

    Dr Rossi Andrea,
    What do you know of the Sacramento plant to make electricity with nuts? Are they nuts?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Travis Boge:
    Today, Easter, She is going well, stable, with long ssm. We fixed a water leak few minutes ago: we have km of pipings and leaks are not rare. It is a trivial issue, but the consequences can be relevant if not immediately detected and fixed: as paradoxical as it may seem, plumbing can compromise science… I can’t stop thinking ( to be careful to the particulars apparently trivial) to the tragedy of the Space Shuttle ( cost several billions) that exploded because of a 100 $ “O-Ring” made with a wrong kind of rubber. We must be focused to the extreme on this first industrial E-Cat, to take notice of all the errors, even the apparently trivial, to correct the future production. This piles up anxiety, of course, because you can never relax.
    Again, Happy Easter, from inside the plant, to you and all our Readers.

  • Dr Rossi:
    How is going the 1MW E-Cat today, in the moment you will answer to this text?

  • Andrea Rossi

    Alan Clarke:
    The issue of using the Rossi Effect for the Actinides is one of the issues our team has programmed an R&D for. There could be many applications and the one you indicate is among the most interesting. The problem is that to make such experimantation are necessary specific authorizations and such research can be made only in specific locations, because to deal with radioactive material is strictly regulated. We have contacts in course with Laboratories that can do that. One specific issue regarding your intelligent comment is that if you fuel a spacecraft with radioactive material there is the risk that, in case of a fall down of the same spacecraft, the radioactive material could fall incontrollably in areas where they could make a risk for the health of the close inhabitants. For example, NASA has suspended the program for rockets fueled by plutonium as a heat source for this precise reason.
    Warm Regards,

  • Alan Clarke

    If it is feasible to ‘hydrogenate/fuse’ an atom of hydrogen with Thorium232. This would give us Protactinium233 & heat. The Protactinium233 would rapidly beta-decay to U233 for use in a conventional fission reactor or LFTR (Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor). Furthermore, starting up the LFTR with U233 gives us the very valuable bi-product Pu238, which is essential to power long haul space probes (Voyager)

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