Nuclear signatures to be expected from Rossi energy amplifier

by Jacques Dufour
CNAM Laboratoire des sciences nucléaires, 2 rue Conté 75003 Paris France

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Abstract: the nuclear signatures that can be expected when contacting hydrogen with fine nickel powders are derived from thermal results recently obtained (Rossi energy amplifier). The initiation of the reactions (either by proton or neutron capture) is not discussed and considered as true. Proposals are made to check the process either by radiation emission measurements or by elemental analysis (ICP-MS)

1. Intruduction

In a recent paper [1], results are presented on vast amounts of energy (kWh) generated by contacting Hydrogen at pressures of tens of bars and temperatures round 400°C, with nickel powder (with an unspecified additive). No harmful radiations were measured, which is attributed to the presence of a lead shield absorbing γ emission occurring during the run and to the very short period of the instable species formed during the run and decaying after shut down. The efficiency of the process is very high (Eout/Ein up to 400). These levels of energy production strongly points to a nuclear origin. The proposed process [1] would be proton capture by the nickel nuclei. The coulomb barrier problem is suggested to be solved by the strong screening of the electrons. Another solution has been proposed [2]: virtual neutrons formation, reacting with the Nickel nuclei. This solution is also proposed in [3] with a very elaborate justification. In this paper, the capture of a neutron or a proton by a nickel nucleus is accepted as real. The consequences of these captures are analyzed (using very well documented nuclear chemistry data [4], [5]) and proposals are made for precise verification of the process invoked.

2. The neutron or proton capture by Nickel

The reactions paths for these 2 routes finally ends up to the same stable products (59Co, 61Ni, 62Ni, 63Cu and 65Cu) and are summarized in Table 1 and 2 below.

The energy release (see Table 3) occurs mostly by de-excitation through γ emission of the intermediate excited Ni* compound nucleus. The characteristics of this γ emission (depending upon the levels of the excited nucleus), are very well known [4]. This represents (on average) some 8 MeV (balance after deduction of the energy required for the “virtual neutron” formation, i.e 0,782 Mev). The remaining comes from the decay of the ground states of the radioactive intermediate species formed (59Ni, 63Ni, and 65Ni). Data for intermediate radioactive species are from [5].

The energy is released in a way very similar to the neutron capture route, with a lower release from the de-excitation of the intermediate excited Cu* compounds nucleus (some 4 MeV, see Table 3). The remaining half comes from the decay of the ground states of the radioactive intermediate species formed (59Cu, 59Ni, 61Cu and 62Cu). Data for intermediate radioactive species are from [5].

3. Evaluation of the reaction rates

One experiment (Type B) presented in [1], has yielded 3768 kWh for an energy input of 18.54 kWh (between March 5, 2009 and April 26, 2009). This is a net power produced of some 3 kW during some 4.5*10ˆ6 seconds.

From Table 1 and 2, the energy released per Ni atom (averaged by the isotopic composition of the Nickel) has been calculated under following hypothesis:

– the captures (proton or neutron) have the same probabilities whatever the Ni isotope is. This is a first approximation. For the neutron capture route, following cross sections (barn) are measured: 58Ni:4.6, 60Ni:2.9, 61Ni:2.5, 62Ni:15 and 64Ni:2.9). – the subsequent reactions with formed products are not taken into account (too low concentration to have any significant effect).

– decay energy of nucleus with half life time much longer than the experiment duration have been ignored (59Ni for the proton route and 59Ni, 63Ni for the neutron route)

Table 3 below is thus obtained.

As expected, the 2 routes give similar amounts of energy, mainly de-excitation for the neutron route and half de-excitation, half decay for the proton route.

The proton or neutron capture rate can thus be evaluated as:

4. Evaluation of the γ emission rates

The de-excitation of a compound nucleus resulting from neutron capture is very well documented [4]. For nickel, 1 capture gives rise to 2.66 emission of γ photon, with an energy repartition fi given by Table 4:

For the proton capture route, less data are available. To get a first order of magnitude of the γ emission coming from the de-excitation of the primary nucleus formed, the same number of photons per proton capture with the same energy repartition as for the nickel has been taken into account, with of course an average value half the one for nickel (1.79 MeV compared to 3.58). The second half of the energy comes (in the form of γ photons) from the short live β+ emitters: associated γ emission, bremsstrahlung of the positron and annihilation radiation. The average energy of these photons is taken to be in the 0.75 MeV range, thus less penetrating. The energy repartitions ƒ’i (Table 5 ), have been evaluated according to the photon production rate in the proton capture route given below.

Finally, the γ photon production rate for both routes has been evaluated as follows:

5. Effect of lead shielding on expected γ emission

For a poly-energetic beam of photons, the attenuation Ι / Ι0 , resulting from a thickness d of  lead, is:

In [6], the quantity μ/ρ (cmˆ2/g) is given for photon energies from 1eV to 20 MeV. This gives for lead (ρ=11.34 g.cmˆ-3), the absorptions coefficients μi (tables 4 and 5).
Finally, following relations were used to evaluate the attenuation of the beam for increasing values of d (ƒi from table 4 and ƒ’i from table 5):

Figure 1 gives the transmitted γ activity (as log10(I.sˆ-1), as a function of the lead thickness d.

As expected, the lead shielding is more efficient in the proton capture route. Even in that case and for 40 cm of lead, the transmitted activity is still 10ˆ6 sˆ-1. The corresponding value is 3*10ˆ10 sˆ-1 in the neutron capture route.

An important point must be stressed: in the above calculation, the emitting nuclear source is considered to be concentrated in one single point, which is of course not the case. To get a realistic evaluation of the expected flux of photons, it is supposed that the Nickel powder is contained in a cylindrical reactor, diameter 2 cm and length 100 cm (Outer surface 628 cm2). At 1 meter from this tube, shielded by 40 cm of lead, the photons flux is thus ≈1 sˆ-1 cmˆ-2  for proton capture and ≈ 5*10ˆ3  sˆ-1 cmˆ-2  for neutron capture.

6. Final products and residual activity after shut down

The number of stable atoms i formed at the end of the experiment (time T) is:

For radioactive atoms with a disintegration constant λi, the number of atoms formed at T is:

For short life atoms (59,61 and 62Cu-proton capture- 65Ni-neutron capture-), the asymptotic limit is reached well before T and the number of atoms at T is:

For long life atoms (59 and 63Ni-neutron capture and 59Ni-proton capture), the final product at T can be considered to be 59 and 63Ni on the one hand and 59Ni on the other.

Table 6 and 7 summarize the various atoms formed at the experiment shut-down.

Table 6


7. Residual activity after shut down

For both routes, short live species are formed: 65Ni for neutron capture and 59,61 and 62Cu for proton capture (see Tables 1,2,6 and 7). Their concentrations at shut down Ni(T) are given in Table 6 and 7. Their activity decreases as Ni(t)=Ni(T) eˆλit (t=0 at shutdown). Table 8 gives Ni(T) at shutdown (after duration T of the experiment) and the remaining atoms at t=7200 s (2 hour after shut down) Ni(7200)=Ni(T)eˆ-7200λi and hence the residual activity at that time:

Table 8 and 9 below give the residual activity 2 hours after shutdown. The energy of the main characteristic gammas are given in keV and the branching ratios in % (between brackets).

Table 8

Table 9

It can be seen from Table 8 (neutron capture), that 2 hours after shutdown, the activity of 65Ni is still 1.3×10ˆ13  sˆ-1. For proton capture (Table 9) the corresponding activity of 61Cu is still 4.2×10ˆ14  sˆ-1.

As for the emission during the run, the emitting nuclear source is considered to be concentrated in one single point, which is of course not the case. If, as supposed previously, the Nickel powder is contained in a cylindrical reactor, diameter 2 cm and length 100 cm, the total weight of nickel is some 1260g (apparent density 4, volume 300 cm3). If 3 cm3 of the powder is placed against a germanium detector, the activity would be reduced to some 10ˆ11/10ˆ12 sˆ-1 and characteristic radiations could be measured (annihilation radiation for 61Cu and characteristic gammas (see Table 8) for 65Ni).

8. Transmuted products formed

If the total amount of nickel supposed to be processed is some 1260g, corresponding to 21,7 mole or 1.30×10ˆ25 atoms, a tentative mass balance can be made.

For both routes, the isotopic composition of the Nickel is not significantly altered. For both routes, a sizeable amount of “quasi stable” 59Ni is produced, that represent more than 500 ppm atoms of the starting nickel. This is far beyond the precision of Mass spectrometry and could thus be easily detected. In the neutron capture route, “quasi-stable” 63Ni could also be detected (50 ppm atoms).

As regards the isotopic ratio of copper63Cu/65Cu=2.244, it should increase in the proton capture route (the copper produced has a ratio of 3.92). It should decrease in the neutron capture route (no 63Cu is produced). The copper produced represents some 7 ppm atoms in the neutron route and some 37 ppm atom in the proton route. Starting from Nickel powder containing round 1 ppm Copper should give reliable indications on the process.

9. Conclusion

Strong nuclear signatures are expected from the Rossi energy amplifier and it is hoped that this note can help evidence them.

It is of interest to note that in [3] a mechanism is proposed, that strongly suppresses the gamma emission during the run (it is the same mechanism that creates very low energy neutrons, subsequently captured by the nickel. This does not suppress the emission after shut-down, which should be observed, together with the transmutations described above.

by Jacques Dufour

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[1] S. Focardi and A. Rossi “A new energy source from nuclear fusion” Journal of nuclear physics

[2] L. Daddi “Virtual neutrons in orbital capture and neutron synthesis” Journal of nuclear physics

[3] Widom Larsen “Theoretical Standard Model rates of proton to neutron conversions near metallic hydride surfaces” New energy time Widom-Larsen portal

[4] A. Bauer “Protection contre les rayonnements” Commissariat à l’énergie atomique ISBN 2-7272-0102-8

[5] IAEA. ENSDF. Nuclear data service, 2009.


99 comments to Nuclear signatures to be expected from Rossi energy amplifier

  • Andrea Rossi

    Allan Toki:
    That’s the Galilean method.
    Warm Regards,

  • Allan Toki

    Dr Rossi,
    I appreciate the fact that you changed idea from LENR, or Cold Fusion to Long Range Particle Interactions: theories always change in function of experiments.

  • Andrea Rossi

    “NOW” ?????
    ( He,he,he…)
    Yes, the life is hard 16 hours per day, seven days a week, in a sauna with problems to solve and a high level of anxiety, but I am helped by a great Team. I am doing what I have to do, less is impossible if we want a positive result.
    The horse is harnessed, NOW has to pull.
    Warm Regards,

  • Jacqueline

    Andrea Rossi: we saw in the photo with the stethoscope that you have lost much weight ( and you were already slim) and that your face is grew much older than it was in the photos of one year ago: you are giving too much, Andrea, beware your health. We can’t lose an Andrea Rossi now.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Jonne Smalhouse:
    Thank you for involving my friend Jacques Dufour with your interesting comment.
    Warm Regards,

  • Jonne Smalhouse

    Dear Jacques Dufour

    Your articles and ideas on the emerging technologies of LENR are quite inspiring.
    I do not think that Mr Rossi’s amplifier is the first pico-chemical reactor however.
    I believe that this was possibly the deuterium-palladium cell. Or an early exploding Tesla magnet.
    You are right about the hybridization being very difficult to model; even if you look at the ideas Einstein passed on to his student Vigier. But the results still remain.

    Can I ask you if you have thought about equating the estimated k-values you have derived with the energies of a dielectric-induced hybridization (electrochemical oscillation) with an estimate of the anomalous Hall current inside a Pd lattice electrode?

    Furhtermore, you have looked at the emission products of Ni-D LENR’s but have you considered the effects of a localized change in gravitational potential (there is an exceptionally high level of symmetry allied to the forces inside such reactor cells or bipyramidal galleries) upon the virtual neutron? To put it another way, an extremely localizedd distortion of time?
    Best wishes

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stanley Jerrard-Dunne:
    Thank you!
    Warm Regards,

  • Stanley Jerrard-Dunne

    Dear Andrea Rossi
    thankyou for the reply to my costing query.
    I look forward to getting a 10kw unit.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stanley Jerrard- Dunne:
    I said we will sell the E-Cat at 600-900 UD$, moreless. You are very right, the cost/kW is very much different. It is because the 1 MW plants are manufactured with traditional manufacturing systems, while the domestic E-Cat will be made completely by robots. The economy scale is different, and also the products are different, the E-Cats are made upon a completely different technology that cannot be applied in the big assemblies.
    Warm Regards,

  • Stanley Jerrard-Dunne

    Dear Andre Rossi
    I have a query. You say you will sell the 10kw unit for around $500. The 1000kw or one megawatt is costing
    $1.5 million,which is $1.5 per watt. why is the price of this unit so high against the 10kw units at 5cent per watt.
    Please reply thankyou.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Ing- Ivan Matousek:
    Please forward the description of what you need to
    Warm Regards,

  • Ing. Ivan Matousek

    Dear Mr. Rossi,
    I have been following with interest your E-Cat progress since last year, and I am very pleased that you have been successful in realizing it into a real application. I consider this pure power source the biggest invention since the combustion engine. I will appreciate very much if I can use it as a cheap source of energy in the future for supplying houses with energy or for machine driving. If any application is ready to utilize, I would be very grateful for your offer.
    Best regards, Ivan Matousek

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear éaolo:
    1- I hope to deliver the fiorst E-Cat within the next Winter (northern hemisphere)
    2- I will pass your complaint to our IT Guy.
    Warm Regards,

  • Paolo

    Caro Rossi.
    1) Siccome purtroppo ho dovuto necessariamente istallare una nuova caldaia a condensazione a metano con tutte le relative spese per l’impianto; quando avrò il suo e-cat mi darete le indicazioni necessarie per non rendere questa spesa inutile e dover affrontare nuove spese? Come dovrò collegarlo, dopo la caldaia con un deposito per l’acqua calda prodotta in eccesso ?
    2) Visto la difficoltà nello scorrere il vostro post; nel senso che dobbiamo andare a ritroso per leggere prima le domande, è possibile far scorrere il post il modo che prima appaiano le domande dall’alto e poi le sue cortesi risposte…Mi sembrerebbe più logico e funzionale. Grazie

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Carlo Urbani:
    Thank you very much for the link, nice!
    Warm Regrds,

  • Carlo Urbani

    Caro Ing. Rossi

    con l’augurio che la sua rivoluzionaria macchina possa quanto prima essere accessibile a tutti le invio questa simpatica cosa che esprime al meglio la mia stima per lei e per il Prof. Focardi, per quello che state facendo. Spero si vorrà concedere 4 minuti per ascoltare, ne vale la pena.
    Grazie e buon lavoro

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Stanley Jerrard-Dunne:
    Your pre-order,has been accepted. I will appreciate your help for assistance.
    Warm Regards,

  • Stanley Jerrard-Dunne

    Dear Andrea Rossi.

    I am living in Ireland and would like to put my name down to order one of your
    Home Ecats for my house heating of 2000 sq ft.
    Please add me to the list.
    I have been following your progress for the last two years and hope
    you will be in production by the end of 2012.

    If you would like help in servicing Ecats in Ireland I have access to
    electronic and Mecanical engineers who would be only to pleased to assist.

  • Michael van Dijk

    Dear Andrea,

    I have emailed Defkalion Green Technologies to open further communications regarding manufacturing and distribution rights in the Australasian region.

    I would love to assist your efforts in bringing your technology to market in our region.

    Looking forward to further communications.

    The Kindest of Regards


  • Andrea R.

    Dear Eng. Andrea Rossi,
    as par what communicated about Uppsala test on used Ni powder, 11% Fe was found as 10%Cu.
    As you consider Cu as product of reaction Ni+H how do you explain presence of Fe

  • Andrea Rossi

    Gent. Ing. Arrabito,
    L’applicazione navale di questa tecnologia e’ possibile, ma necessita di evoluzione. Per favore mi contatti a Novembre, dopo che avremo completato la messa a punto dei moduli da 1 MW per produzione di energia termica. A quel punto avro’ la disponibilita’ di tempo necessaria per seguirvi. Sono molto interessato a sviluppare le applicazioni navali.
    Cordiali saluti,

  • Gentile ing.Rossi, sono un ingegnere navale e mi occupo della progettazione di megayachts,ultimamente con propulsione ibrida elettrica. Mio padre, pure ingegnere navale e nucleare, essendo stato direttore del reattore nucleare del CAMEN, mi suggerisce di contattarvi per studiare, appena possibile applicazioni navali. In questo specifico settore abbiamo la possibilita’ di coinvolgere investitori per lo sviluppo specifico dell’applicazione. Se interessato, la pregherei di contattarmi. Facendole i complimenti per il lavoro che state svolgendo, le porgo i più’ cordiali saluti. Ing.Giuseppe Arrabito. ARRABITO NAVAL ARCHITECTS

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Jan Olof Jonson:
    Thank you for your useful reference.
    Warm regards,

  • Caro dottor Rossi:
    Ho letto il Dott. Hasslberges e-mail ai membri del NPA, dove berättae circa i tuoi progressi in fusione fredda.
    Ero già 14 anni fa veniva pubblicato un articolo, che spiega la teoria, come fusione fredda possono verificarsi ai poli di una corrente / tensione d’esercizio [cinese Journal of Physics, Sezione IV, CJP / find_content.php anno = 1997 & vol = 35 & no = 2, e:? Atti del NPA, Volume 5, No. 1, pp 119-120
    2008, 15a Natural Philosophy Alliance Conference, Albuquerque, NM, Stati Uniti,
    Mi auguro che questi risultati possono essere utili per voi.

    Cordiali saluti,
    Jan Olof Jonson

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Ramon Fernandez:
    For this kind of issues, please contact
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Ramon Fernandez

    Dear Andrea:

    We are interested in the deployment of your generator, please contact us at our email, we want to meet you in order to treat licensing,manufacturing or buying your generators.

  • Andrea Rossi

    Thasnk you and do not worry: I am very, very used to fight.
    Warm Regards,

  • Ing. Albert Ellul

    Dear Ing. Andrea Rossi,
    I am from Malta and I am a mechanichal engineer. I am 58 years old. I have been following the science behind LENR since the experiment by Martin Fleischmann, then one of the world’s leading electrochemists, and Stanley Pons in March of 1989. Although these great scientists, like Galileo were scarificed by the modern ‘popes’ dressed up in laboratory coats and disguised as scientists, other scientists took up the science on a global scale, although without much publicity. Your achievement is a result of your courage and scientific conviction and is going to change the global energy paradigm for a very long time and with it the political and economic one.

    You may not yet be sure of what’s behind the energy, and some people with bad intentions may criticise you on this, but as Galileo said to the pope: “eppur si muove”, no matter what, it moves and in this case it must be said: WHATEVER IT IS, IT IS PRODUCING ENERGY CHEAPLY AND SAFELY. I trust that the corrupt main stream media, politicians and corrupt scientists do not orchestrate some dirty campaign and destroy your great achievment and you with it, as happened to Fleischmann and Pons 21 years ago.
    Good luck.

  • Hi Andrea,

    My friend has a very large 3500 sq ft manufacturing machine shop in the western United States and he would be very interested in manufacturing your energy heating device’. This will allow you to get started in North America commercially producing product inventory. If you have any interest in this offer please contact me at this email adddress or by calling me at: 1- 626-261-4500

    Thank you


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  • Andrea Rossi

    If you are A student, we are more than happy that our papers are useful for your University. You are free to use our papers anyway.
    Warm Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

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  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Mr Patrick D’ Silva,
    Thank you for your comment and for your words.
    We make thermal energy, the temperature depends on the amount of fluid, ranges from 40 through 550 Celsius Degrees.
    We do not need continuous electric power and for the K factor you can have a panoramic in the paper Focardi Rossi on this Journal.
    The input can be what you want, the delta T will be applied . About the energy balance, we guarantee to the Customers an energy output significantly superior to the energy input. In the paper Focardi Rossi you will find data regarding some of the tests made to the prototype. The bigger units are series of the prototype unit, basically, with some modifications.
    I hope tomake before the end of the year a press conference regarding the industrial production which we are making.
    Again thanks for your really appreciated interest.
    Warmest Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Patrick D'silva

    Dear Sir,

    I have been following this blog with great interest and have been a regular reader. My congratulations for the fantastic work being done by you and your team to find a new clean source of energy. God knows that our world needs it sooner than later.

    I have a few questions about your 1MW plant. Would truly appreciate your kind answers!

    Is this 1MW plant producing electrical power or heat energy? If heat energy, then at what temperature is this heat energy being produced?

    Does it require continuous electrical power? If yes, what is the amplification in terms of electrical inputs? If no, then how much power it consumes in a period of say a month ?

    What are inputs? For e.g. what is input fluid temperature? Is any other energy supplied? Can you provide some insight on the energy balance aspect of this plant?

    I thank you in anticipation and wish you success in your endeavor.

    Best regards,

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Prof. Celani:
    1- with a charge of 1 g of Ni we consume 94 kWh of energy, considering the consume of Hydrogen and of power, and produce 750 kWh.
    Margin of variance: 10% moreless. This gain is the limit above which dangerous situations begin.
    2- We think that all the Ni participates to the reactions, even if some isotopes should be more efficient. Anyway, we use regular Ni, because the isotopes separation is too expensive, at least right now, and the answer 1 relates to regular Ni with the natural isotopical composition
    3- I do not think we have H+H reactions: much higher energies would be necessary to produce He. We use low energies, high energies make the nucleons too energetic to build something useful. This, at least, is my opinion, which, as everything in theoretic physics, can be wrong.
    Thank you for your questions,
    Warmest Regards,
    Andrea Rossi

  • Francesco Celani

    Dear Eng. Andrea Rossi,
    I would like to thank You for your kind consideration about our experimental activity.
    * BTW, in respect to my question about excess power density using one gram of Nickel, You answered that it is 750kW (so 750kW/g) but, always if there are no problems to share your results, how much is your energy density? In other words, how many J or kWh you “gain” from 1g of Nickel?

    * Moreover, your fuels are both Hydrogen and Nickel if have well understood, but can we suppose that all the Nickel participate the Ni+H reaction or only a particular isotope of Nickel make the reaction and other isotopes are useless? Do you think are there also H+H reaction?

    Thanks for all your answers and the help that you are giving to this important field of Science.

    Warmest Regards,
    Francesco CELANI

  • Andrea Rossi


  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Prof. Celani, I forgot:
    Warmest Regards

  • Andrea Rossi

    Dear Prof. Celani,
    I am really pleased from the fact that you looked at our work. I know who you are and I thank you really for your attention.
    Our standard module consumes 500 watts and yields constantly and with absolute reliability, with no risks that radiations exit the reactor and with no risks of explosion, 4 kW. We obtained much higher efficiencies, as you can read on the Focardi-Rossi paper published on the Journal Of Nuclear Physics, but now I had to find a compromise to manufacture power plants with absolute reliability under the point of view of safety. The excess of energy follows a K= 8 at the moment. We reached a K 400, but we got explosions. I can get risks when I amk alone, but to sell a reliable product I have to go down to 8, right now. We are manufacturing a 1 MW plant made with 125 modules.
    With 1 g of Ni I got 750 kW.
    Again thank you for your attention.

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