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by Jacques Chauveheid
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Abstract
Contrasting with dark energy cosmology seemingly viewing the universe as a star whose gravitation exclusively acts on its own source, a twobody configuration leads to Schwarzschild’s cosmological time coupled with the negative source mass of a primeval black hole.
To the end, we follow Einstein’s geometric approach in his first (static) universe, hereafter referred to as Einstein´s universe (anterior to that with cosmological constant in 1917), whose 3space metric in standard form is structurally identical to that in the spherical RobertsonWalker metric.
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by
Paolo Accomazzi
Email: paolo.accomazzi@gmail.com
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Abstract
In this paper we show that Heliumlike Hydrogen spectra obtained by Randell L. Mills and Ultra Dense Hydrogen obtained by Holmlid [2] are interpretable as experimental evidences of Binuclear Atoms.
The Hydrogen Binuclear Atom, a model proposed 25 years ago, is a metastable configuration in which the two nuclei are held together at a very short distance in an atomlike configuration.
This should be a peculiar conguration of the Hydrogen molecule where nuclei are characterized by a high kinetic energy, and nuclear motion is coupled with electronic motion.
This is a completely different model from the usual BornOppenheimer picture of atoms and molecules we are used to, where nuclei oscillate about their equilibrium positions and electronic motion is decoupled from the nuclear one.
The identification of Heliumlike Hydrogen Spectra and Ultra Dense Hydrogen as Binuclear Atoms has a strong impact on one of the main objections to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR): the overcoming of the Coulomb barrier thus identifying a sound mechanism for the occurrence of LENR.
Far for being conclusive, this work has the only aim to take this hypothesis more seriously, and focus the attention of people interested in LENR mechanism on this subject.
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by
N.A.Mansour
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University
Zagazig, P.O.Box 44519, Egypt
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Nabil M.Hassan
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University
Zagazig, P.O.Box 44519, Egypt
Department of NORM Regulation, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS)
P.O.Box 114, Yusong, Daejeon 305338, Republic of Korea
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S.A.Abd Elaal
Central Lab. for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis, Nuclear Research Centre
EAEA, Egypt
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M.FayezHassan
Department of Experimental Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Research Centre
EAEA, Egypt
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Mohamed Saad Seoud
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University
Zagazig, P.O.Box 44519, Egypt
Calibration and Radiation Dosimetry Division, Radiation Protection Department
Ministry of Health, Kuwait
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Abstract
Petroleum waste of scale, sludge and sand that maintained various level of naturally occurring radioactive materials could also contain heavy and toxic elements which cause hazardous pollution to human health and the environment so that determination of these elements in waste petroleum samples are important to refineries, industrial processes, waste disposal and transports.
Thus, the present work will focus on the evaluation the concentrations of metals, heavy and toxics elements in waste petroleum samples from petroleum companies located in Egypt and Kuwait using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICPOES) and XRay Fluorescence (XRF) Techniques.
6 samples of scale, sludge and sand were collected, 3 samples from Kuwait petroleum companies and 3 samples from Egypt as well.
More than 17 elements of metals, heavy elements and toxic metals of (Si, Cu, Al, S, K, Ca, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb, As, Br, Sr, Rh, Ba and Ti) were detected in the selected samples with various values.
All the studied samples had high concentrations of Fe, K, Ca, S and Si rather than the other elements.
The concentration of Iron in Egyptian samples was higher than in Kuwait samples whilst silicon and potassium were greater in Kuwait samples.
All the other elements were almost same in Egyptian and Kuwait samples.
Furthermore, the toxic element of barium was detected in Egyptian samples with high concentration but it was not detected in Kuwait samples (XRF).
The two measurement methods show good agreement, No significant differences.
The obtained results imply that the petroleum wastes need more monitoring in order to minimize the environmental pollution.
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by
George J Chang
Theoretical Physics Department
No. 1, Gong 1st Road, Cyuan Sing Industrial Park,
Hemei, Changhua County, Taiwan
Email: georgejchang@aol.com
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Abstract
This paper reports a constant of energy deficit of 271 keV in all β decay processes, when we compare the β decay Qvalues together with the involved particles, electron and neutrino, with the calculation of the proton/neutron separation energy differences which is equivalent to the β decay process between mother and daughter nuclides. This result, after being verified theoretically with deduction from basic definition of proton/neutron separation energy and calculation of nuclear data with both in good agreement, implies that this energy deficit of 271 keV in all β decay processes is either the value of neutrino mass or, if the result of KATRIN experiment, which concluded that neutrino mass to be less than 2.05 eV, is correct, something related to undetected dark energy.
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by
Brent Whipple
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Part I. A Comprehensive Principle
1. The geometry of spacetime has to support objectivity. That is inescapable.
All of natural science must share a common grounding in the reality of nature.
Also the mathematics we have discovered and use to describe the reality of nature can only arise out of, and so can only refer to, the same natural reality.
Natural science and mathematics have a common foundation, they spring from a common source.
Since this reference of the complex to the simple has been realized, the quest to understand and describe our universe has become a quest for an inferred principle that comprehends all of evolution and therefore can organize the apparent diversity of nature and affect the entire course of evolution.
Because of this the quest to understand nature has become the quest for the initial condition of the universe, that is, for the initial appearance of objective reality which we think of as spacetime.
All the mysteries of the evolution of the universe are bound up with the unknown, foundational nature of spacetime.
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by
U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, ISERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad35, Telangana, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@gmail.com
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Abstract
Based on the principle of conservation of energy and from the well known nuclear fusion and fission reactions it is possible to guess that, the ECAT hidden energy may be in the form of binding of protons and neutrons of the Nickel, Hydrogen and Lithium atomic nuclei.
In view of the recently developed compact 1MW ECAT power plant designed by the Leonardo corporation, Nickel can certainly be considered as the ultimate substitute of Coal, Oil and Uranium in near future.
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by
U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, ISERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad35, Telangana, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@gmail.com
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Abstract
In the early publications, with reference to final unification, the authors suggested that
1) There exists a strong interaction elementary charge of magnitude, es~4.72058686E19 C.
2) Like quarks, the strong interaction elementary charge is experimentally undetectable and can be called as ‘invisible elementary nuclear charge’.
3) There exists a gravitational constant associated with strong interaction, Gs~3.329560807E28 m3/kg/sec2.
4) There exists a gravitational constant associated with electromagnetic interaction, Ge~2.374335472E37 m3/kg/sec2. Based on these concepts, an attempt is made to understand the mystery of origin of ‘discrete’ angular momentum of electron in hydrogen atom. Proceeding further, estimated value of Newtonian gravitational constant is GN~6.67985603E11 m3/kg/sec2.
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by
Yu.N. Bazhutov
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A.I. Gerasimova
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V.P. Koretskiy
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After Andrea Rossi’s Heat Generator (Ecat) presentation with demonstrations of excess heat up to 600 % [1, 2] we have repeated such experiments with similar cell in Russia. As a result by us it has been received the considerable exit of neutrons (~500000) in serial and xray radiation [3, 4, 5, 6]. We presented them at the Russian annual Conferences on Cold Nuclear Transmutation [3, 4] and at the International Conference in Korea [6]. However we didn’t find excess heat on these installations. Therefore we decided to return to a previous study of plasma electrolysis on the Fakel1 installations [7] and the Fakel2 [8,9], where we already had indications on existence of nuclear radiation and excess heat in this cell mode. On the modernized installation Fakel3 with plasma electrolysis the convincing evidence of nuclear processes was obtained. It was provided by Erzion catalysis [10] with the large excess heat. The received results have provided the positive decision on our International patent [11]. Here we present the investigation results of plasma electrolysis with anode gas discharge in usual water. In our experiments there have been used different nuclear & calorimeter diagnostic methods. Numerous demonstrations of their nuclear nature have been obtained in full accordance with Cold Nuclear Transmutation Erzion Catalysis model predictions [1217]. In much series there were regularly demonstrated large excess heat generations (< 700%). This can provide creating of ourself Russian ECat (Erzion Catalyzer) Heat Generator & new perspective nuclear energetics.
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V.A. Uzikov
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I.V.Uzikova
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Introduction
So far, the common practice of radioactive waste treatment in Russia was controlled temporary storage – the socalled “procrastinated decision”. In Russia, the total amount of accumulated liquid radioactive waste (hereinafter LRW) is 477 million, and 77 millions of solid radioactive waste. However, as the world and Russian practice shows, that the controlled storage of radioactive waste in the long term results their accumulation and is not acceptable as a strategy of RAW treatment. Such strategy does not lead to the final safe solution of the problem, but requires the permanent overhead costs without clear prospect [1].
Thus, high production complexes for LRW treatment are needed. Key consumers interested in of liquid radioactive waste treatment plants are:
• enterprises of spent fuel treatment;
• existing nuclear power plants with power and research reactors;
• enterprises involved to decommissioning of boats and ships with nuclear power plants;
• enterprises involved to decommissioning of nuclear power plants and research reactor
installations;
• enterprises involved in the liquidation of the consequences of nuclear accidents
(Chernobyl, Fukushima , etc.).
Nowadays, mainly thermal and sorption methods are used for treatment of liquid radioactive waste. Using these methods, the main part of liquid radioactive waste, produced during the operation of nuclear installations of various purposes and other facilities using radioactive substances, is treated. These methods cannot be called original or specific for the treatment of radioactive waste (hereinafter RAW), because they were taken from various conventional industries and modified. Mainly these are methods, usually used in purification, treatment and desalination of water.
For implementing of treatment methods of nonnuclear industry and their modification, the specific requirements of industries related to radiation must be taken into account [2]:
• leak tightness of the equipment, excluding the possibility of radioactive contamination of buildings, staff and the environment;
• feasibility of the equipment operation to minimize the need for maintenance services in the radiation conditions, which require complicated and expensive works of equipment decontamination.
The most universal method for treatment of almost all types of LRW is a thermal method, in which LRW solution is evaporated to concentrate radioactive products in a small volume.
Practice of LRW treatment shows that the main source of problems in evaporation equipment are the heat exchange pipes. During the operation, their surface is covering inevitably by sediments, which have to be removed periodically by chemical washing, with interruption of the treatment process and at the same time with producing a large amount of secondary LRW. This inevitability is caused by evaporator’s design including heat exchange tubes – the process of sedimentation of the tubes cannot be prevented, it can only be decreased by using different methods: increasing the circulation velocity in heat exchange tubes or addition of special chemicals additives. The inevitability of foamanddroplets entrainment from the evaporator is also caused by its design, so the additional special equipment have to be used for steam and condensate purification from radionuclides. Moreover, it is necessary to perform periodically the mechanical cleaning of heat exchange tubes which leads to important radiation doses to personnel.
All these problems existing in LRW evaporation technology are well known and studied, and some alternative methods are considered in [2], but it is concluded that these methods have a low productivity and heat transfer because of the lack of an organized circulation of evaporated solution [2].
The ideal comprehensive solution of the problem of LRW treatment is to create a continuous LRW evaporation technology with cementation of the concentrate at the same time, and the possible addition of used sorbents and sludge to the resulting cement compound. The main factor limiting the use of evaporation technology is a high energy costs, but with the appearance at energy market such installations as ECat, this problem disappears.
For comprehensive solution of the problems of LRW concentration and its subsequent cementation it is proposed to establish a technological process based on the two following principles:
1. To perform the process of LRW concentration in the evaporator equipment, that helps to prevent droplet entrainment and excludes degradation of technological parameters in time (to exclude interruptions in work of evaporation equipment due to fouling of the heating surface).
2. To make the processes of evaporation (secondary evaporation) and conditioning of LRW (inclusion in cement matrix) sequental and continuous, thereby eliminating the need for a large number of intermediate containers and dosing of separate portions.
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by
U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, ISERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@gmail.com
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Abstract
During NiH collisions, proton (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel nucleus and electron (of the hydrogen atom) combines with the Nickel electronic shell and forms Copper with no emission of alpha or beta or gamma rays.
or mole number of such NiH atomic fusions, as hydrogen atom is losing its identity, binding energy of electron is converted into heat energy of ~1.3×106 joules.
As the temperature of the system increases, more number of hydrogen atoms may fuse with more number of Nickel atoms liberating more heat energy.
Selection of the target cold fusion atom seems to follow the condition: selected stable atom’s Z+1 is a new stable element with odd atomic number.
Fineness of the Ni powder may help H atoms to fuse with ease causing more number of NiH fusions.
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by
Khokon Hossen
MaxPlanck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Email: khokon.pme@gmail.com
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Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), that were introduced by R. Santonico and R. Cardarelli in 1981, are gas ionization chambers made with resistive electrodes separated by precision spacers.
Typical gas gap range from a few hundred micrometers to several millimeters wide.
Timing Resistive Plate Chambers (tRPCs) were introduced in 2000 by P.Fonte, A.Smirnitsky and M.C.S Williams and has, since then, reached Time Resolutions better than 50 ps (σ) with efficiencies above 99% for Minimum Ionizing Particle (MIP).
In this research work, we describe the main features of gas detectors and the different types of RPCs and their properties.
We describe a cheap and easy to built sealed tRPCs and we explain how we have built it.
We describe the main results we have got operating the sealed tRPCs built in the laboratory.
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by
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U.V.S. Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, ISERVE, Alakapuri,
Hyderabad35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S. Lakshminarayana
Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@yahoo.com
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Introduction
In this paper by highlighting the following 28 major short comings of modern big bang cosmology the authors made an attempt to develop a possible model of Black hole cosmology in a constructive way [13].
From now onwards instead of focusing on ‘big bang cosmology’ it is better to concentrate on ‘black hole cosmology’.
Its validity can be well confirmed from a combined study of cosmological and microscopic physical phenomena.
It can be suggested that, there exists one variable physical quantity in the presently believed atomic and nuclear physical constants and “rate of change” in its magnitude can be considered as a “standard measure” of the present “cosmic rate of expansion”.
Michael E. McCulloch says [4]: For an observer in an expanding universe there is a maximum volume that can be observed, since beyond the Hubble distance the velocity of recession is greater than the speed of light and the redshift is infinite: this is the Hubble volume.
Its boundary is similar to the event horizon of a black hole because it marks a boundary to what can be observed.
This means that it is reasonable to assume that Hawking radiation is emitted at this boundary both outwards and inwards to conserve energy, and any wavelength that does not fit exactly within this size cannot be allowed for the inwards radiation, and therefore also for the outwards radiation.
According to Hawking, the mass of a black hole is linearly related to its temperature or inverselylinearly related to the wavelength of the Hawking radiation it emits.
Therefore, for a given size of the universe there is a maximum Hawking wavelength it can have and a minimum allowed gravitational mass it can have.
If its mass was less than this then the Hawking radiation would have a wavelength that is bigger than the size of the observed universe and would be disallowed.
The minimum mass it predicts is encouragingly close to the observed mass of the Hubble volume.
Thus it is possible to model the Hubble volume as a black hole that emits Hawking radiation inwards, disallowing wavelengths that do not fit exactly into the Hubble diameter, since partial waves would allow an inference of what lies outside the horizon.
According to Tinaxi Zhang [57], the universe originated from a hot starlike black hole with several solar masses and gradually grew up through a super massive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billiontrillion solar masses by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes.
According to N. J. Poplawski [811], the Universe is the interior of an EinsteinRosen black hole and began with the formation of the black hole from a supernova explosion in the center of a galaxy.
He theorizes that torsion manifests itself as a repulsive force which causes fermions to be spatially extended and prevents the formation of a gravitational singularity within the black hole’s event horizon.
Because of torsion, the collapsing matter on the other side of the horizon reaches an enormous but finite density, explodes and rebounds, forming an EinsteinRosen bridge (wormhole) to a new, closed, expanding universe.
Analogously, the Big Bang is replaced by the Big Bounce before which the Universe was the interior of a black hole.
The rotation of a black hole would influence the spacetime on the other side of its event horizon and results in a preferred direction in the new universe.
Most recently cosmologists Razieh Pourhasan, Niayesh Afshordi and Robert B. Manna have proposed [12] that the Universe formed from the debris ejected when a fourdimensional star collapsed into a black hole – a scenario that would help to explain why the cosmos seems to be so uniform in all directions.
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by
Wladimir Guglinski
retired, author of the Quantum Ring Theory
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In the book Quantum Ring Theory I had proposed a doublefield model for elementary particles (composed by two concentric fields), therefore a field model fundamentally different of the monofield model considered in the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED).
The inner field, named principal field Sp, gyrates and induces the outer field, named secondary field Sn. In the book, published in 2006, it was considered that the outer field Sn gyrates.
In this model, the outer field Sn is responsible for the electric charge of the particles as the electron, the proton, etc.
Later in 2010 I changed the doublefield model, by considering that the outer field Sn does not gyrates. However, in 2014, after a long discussion with the reader Mr.Joe in the Comments of the Journal of Nuclear Physics, he drew our attention to two key points:
 An outer field Sn induced by the rotation of an inner field Sp must have rotation.
 A monofield model violates the monopolar nature of the electric charge in the eveneven nuclei with Z=N, because they have null magnetic moment, but as all the nuclei have rotation then the eveneven nuclei with Z=N would have to have nonnull magnetic moment (because the rotation of the positive charge of the proton would have to induce a magnetic moment). Therefore QED violates the monopolar nature of the electric charge in the case of the eveneven nuclei with Z=N.
 A doublefield model in which the outer field Sn gyrates would have to induce a magnetic field in the case of eveneven nuclei with Z=N, if we consider the field Sn in the classical sense of Euclidian space. But the space considered in Quantum Ring Theory is not Euclidian, in order that the rotation of the field Sn never induces magnetic fields, and this is the reason why the eveneven nuclei with Z=N have null magnetic moment.
Here we will analyse these questions in details.
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by
Sundar Narayan
Lambton College – Sarnia, Ontario, Canada
Abstract
This paper derives a formula for the lifetime of an unbound or free neutron and shows that neutron lifetime can be related to Newton’s gravitational constant, G, providing a muchneeded theoretical formula for G, enabling G to be computed with greater accuracy than today’s experiments allow.
Another equally accurate formula for G is derived based on the properties of the virtual electrons that very briefly exist in a quantum vacuum.
Also, Newton’s law of gravity and Coulomb’s electrostatic law are derived from the same equation, providing a simple proof of the wellknown connection between these two laws.
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by
Valeriy Y.Tarasov
Email: vytarasov@yahoo.com
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Abstract
The hspace theory is a variant of unified physical theory – a theory of everything.
This theory was built de novo, as the existing physical theories are incompatible and so unsuitable for unification.
A new approach is needed, and has been developed by reevaluating the definitions of primary physical concepts.
The starting point for the reevaluation was the following equation – Et = mvL, where energy – E, time – t, length – L, mass – m, velocity – v.
Analysis of these physical concepts resulted in the construction of a unique equation of the primary concepts such as space, length, energy and velocity.
From this, models could be developed that explain all wellknown physical phenomena.
In addition, hspace theory predicts phenomena rejected by the current mainstream theories, such as limits to gravitational and electrostatic interactions, and the possibility of cold fusion (as a consequence of the electric charge definition, a modification of Coulomb’s law and the definitions of elementary particles in hspace theory).
The final section of this article describes a number of experimental tests that could be used to verify the hspace theory.
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by
Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev
York University, Toronto, Canada
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Abstract
Advances in the field of cold fusion and the recent success of the nickel and hydrogen exothermal reaction, in which the energy release cannot be explained by a chemical process, need a deeper understanding of the nuclear reactions and, more particularly, the possibility for modification of the Coulomb barrier.
The current theoretical understanding does not offer an explanation for cold fusion or LENR. The treatise “Basic Structures of Matter – Supergravitation Unified Theory”, based on an alternative concept of the physical vacuum, provides an explanation from a new point of view by using derived threedimensional structures of the atomic nuclei.
For explanation of the nuclear energy, a hypothesis of a field microcurvature around the superdense nucleus is suggested.
Analysis of some successful cold fusion experiments resulted in practical considerations for modification of the Coulomb barrier.
The analysis also predicts the possibility of another cold fusion reaction based on similarities between the nuclear structures of Ni and Cr.
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by
Gamal A. Nasser
Faculty of science, Mansoura University, Egypt
Email: chem.gamal@hotmail.com
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Abstract
This model is development of solid nuclear models. Like FCC model, this model can account for nuclear properties that have been explained by different models. This model gives more accurate explanation for some nuclear properties which are Asymmetric fission, Nuclear binding energy and the most bound nuclei, Natural radioactivity and Number of neutrons in nuclei depending on the structures of these nuclei. The structures of nuclei in this model have special advantage, as there is separation between lattice positions of similar nucleons giving new concept for nuclear force.
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by
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U.V.S.Seshavatharam
Honorary faculty, ISERVE, Alakapuri
Hyderabad35, AP, India
Email: seshavatharam.uvs@gmail.com
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S.Lakshminarayana
Dept.of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University
Visakhapatnam03, AP, India
Email: lnsrirama@yahoo.com
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Abstract
Point of ‘big bang’ can be considered as the center or characteristic reference point of cosmic expansion in all directions.
If so, the existence of ‘preferred direction’ in the universe may not be wrong.
Based on the Mach’s principle, it can be suggested that, within the ‘Hubble volume’ overall distribution of ‘Hubble mass’ will explain the
observed physical phenomena.
With the discovered applications it is very clear to say that, without a joint and unified study of cosmology and atomic & particle physics, one should not deny the concepts of black hole cosmology.
The most interesting thing is that, at any given cosmic time, if the universe is a primordial growing black hole, then certainly its ‘Schwarzschild radius’ can be considered as its characteristic minimum size at that time.
Clearly speaking, “forever rotating at light speed, high temperature and high angular velocity small sized primordial cosmic black hole gradually transforms into a low temperature and low angular velocity large sized massive primordial cosmic black hole”.
Independent of the redshift observations and considering the proposed relations, with a great confidence now one can start seeing/observing the universe as a primordial expanding and light speed rotating black hole. Based on the proposed relations and concepts of black hole cosmology, definitions of cosmic homogeneity and cosmic isotropy must be readdressed.
It is also clear that, now the black hole universe is expanding in a decelerating mode at a very small rate in such a way that with current technology one cannot measure its deceleration rate.
Finally it can be suggested that cosmic acceleration and dark energy can be considered as pure mathematical concepts and there exists no physical base behind their affirmation.
For the most serious cosmologists this may be a bitter news, but it is a fact.
Authors hope that, by 2015 definitely this subject will come into main stream physics.
With reference to Black hole cosmology, it can be suggested that, characteristic nuclear charge radius and the characteristic angular momentum of the revolving electron increase with cosmic time.
In addition, characteristic nuclear charge radius is more fundamental than the reduced Planck’s constant.
The key point to be noted is that the Planck’s constant can be considered as a cosmological constant.
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by
Jacques Chauveheid
If quantum mechanics can provide quantitative expressions of forces in conformity with the work of Erhenfest and the principle of correspondence, recognized quantitative expressions for nuclear and weak forces do not currently exist. In addition, the four basic forces do not depend on temperature, since measured in vacuum between particles.
In one of his books, Abraham Pais recalled a comment by Rutherford during the 19141919 period: “the Coulomb forces dominate if v (speed of alpha particles) is sufficiently small”, evidencing by these words the velocitydependence of the strongnuclear force. However, since Rutherford did not apparently refer to temperature, optimal conditions for nuclear fusion do not necessarily arise in disordered configurations characterized by extremely high temperatures, such as those encountered in stars like the sun. Even compared with galaxy formation, hot fusion in many stars seems the slowest and most inefficient physical phenomenon in the universe, because the sun’s ten billion year lifetime has an order of magnitude similar to the age of the universe, this circumstance having been highly beneficial for the life on earth.
Although not based on equations, Rutherford’s conclusion constitutes the essence of the “cold” approach to nuclear fusion and reactions starting from moderate energy levels, instead of extreme temperatures hardly controlling with precision the physical parameters ruling nuclear phenomena. In this view, a better theoretical understanding of these parameters will help nuclear technologies.
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B. Theoretical antecedents
Eddington mentioned the concept of asymmetric affine connection in 1921 and pointed out applications in microphysics, but he did not pursue this idea [5]. In 1922, Elie Cartan introduced geometric torsion, as the antisymmetric part of an asymmetric affine connection. In May 1929, Cartan wrote a letter to Einstein in which he recommended the use of the differential formalism he developed, but Einstein did not follow Cartan’s advice.
Between 1944 and 1950, J. Mariani published four papers dealing with astrophysical magnetism and introduced an “ansatz” structurally similar to that used in the present theory. The German word “ansatz”, used by Ernst Schmutzer (correspondence), refers to a supposed relationship between fields of distinct origin, for example geometric contrasting with physical. Einstein also used an ansatz when he identified gravitation with the 4space metric, but he did not put it in the form of an equation, presumably because being trivial.
The organization of the paper is the following: Section II details the Lagrangian formulation and the calculus of variations. Section III is about field equations and quantitative expressions of forces. Section IV introduces the shortrange force between charged particles, first referred to as strongnuclear between nucleons. Section V is on Yukawa and complexity. Section VI details the shortrange forces in both systems electronproton and electronneutron, evidencing a weak nuclear mechanism in LENR technologies.
When not stated otherwise, mathematical conventions are those of reference.
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by
Magnus Holm
Institute of Theoretical Physics
Chalmers University of Technology and Göteborg University – Göteborg 1999
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Abstract
In recent years there has been a dramatic progress in the understanding of the nonperturbative structure of various physical theories.
In particular string theory has been vastly developed during these years, where a lot of duality conjectures between the different string theories have arisen.
The introductory text of this thesis is an attempt to describe this development in short and to make a brief overview of the subject.
Special focus is put on solitonic solutions in various field theories, which is the corner stone for these duality conjectures.
The introduction of supersymmetry is also essential for the understanding of duality by its natural way of handling BPSstates through the algebra.
In string theory, which is not only a supersymmetric theory but also includes gravity, these studies are put together through the discovery of various pbrane solutions to the background field equations.
The geometrical structure of these solutions is studied in some of the papers in this thesis.
In a generalization to the treatment of pbranes as solutions which break the local vacuum symmetry, the theory of almost product structures (APStheory) has arisen as the natural candidate to the study of the intricate geometry of these solutions.
The last two papers deal with this ansatz where it is also seen that APStheory is the most natural way of treating all kinds of splitting of manifolds including fibrations, YangMills theoryand KaluzaKlein theory.
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